AsiaFinest Forum
Ad: 123Designing.com

Welcome Guest ( Log In | Register )

 
Reply to this topicStart new topic
Skin Lightening/bleaching Cream/whitening Cream, Skin Whitening products. Pros and Cons
Shanghaibabe@Tor...
post Jul 14 2004, 09:13 AM
Post #1


AF Guru
Group Icon

Group: Members
Posts: 3,072
Joined: 13-July 04
From: Sex in the City




Bleaching cream or Active Skin lightening agent only can use tạm thời thôi . tại v́ bleaching cream sày hàng ngày lâu giày wá sẽ bị damage your Collagen and Elastin of your skin underneath. this is bad if you are damaging your Collagen and Elastin.

bleaching cream only for temporally using for a period of time, after your face white. you should stop using it.

The most comman Bleaching cream ingredients or skin lightening agent in the market are these ingredients are active ingredients.

- hydroquinone
- Kojic Acid ( in Asia they used Kojic Acid and plant extract a lot)

and also some other that I can't remember in my head.



What is Collagen ?

Collagen. from Paula Book definition A major component of skin that gives it structure. Sun damage causes collagen in skin to deteriorate. Collagen can be derived from both plant and animal sources and is used in cosmetics as a good water-binding agent. Collagen in cosmetics, regardless of the source, has never been shown to have an effect on the collagen in skin.

From Cosmetic ingredients Dictionary book by ruth Winter M.S:

collagen is Protein substance found in connective tissue. In cosmetic it is usually derived from animal tissue. the collagen fibers in connective tissues of the skin undergo changes from aging expose to the sun that contribute to wrinkles and other outward signs of aging. Cosmetic manufactures have hearalded it as a new wonder ingredients but according to medical experts, it can not affect the skin's own collagen when applied topically. Howerever it is being used to fill out acne scars and other depressions, including wrinkles by injection. Allergic reactionn are not infrequent and test spots are supposed to be done first to see wherether an allergic response is provoked.


What is Elastin ?

From Paula Book: Elastin is a Major component of skin that gives it flexibility. Sun damage causes elastin in skin to deteriorate. Elastin can be derived from both plant and animal sources and is used in cosmetics as a good water-binding agent. Elastin in cosmetics has never been shown to affect the elastin in skin or have any other benefit, though it most likely functions as a water-binding agent.

From Cosmetic ingredients Dictionary book by ruth Winter M.S:

Elastin is a protein in connective tissue in the skin.

Excerpted from The Beauty Bible, 2nd edition



Brown spots on skin are called chloasma or melasma and can happen for several reasons. One side effect of sun damage is the skin discoloration known as solar lentigenes, also known as liver, sun or age spots. They are definitely not associated with the liver, but they can have everything to do with unprotected sun exposure. On lighter skin types, solar lentigenes emerge as small brown patches of freckling that grow over time. On women with darker skin tones, they appear as small patches of ashen-gray skin.

Brown or ashen patches of skin can also occur due to birth control pills, pregnancy, or estrogen replacement therapy. In those instances the discoloration is referred to as pregnancy or hormone masking.

Regardless of the source, the issue is the same: site-specific, increased melanin production, or hyperpigmentation. Melanin is the pigment or coloring agent of skin. It is created by melanin synthesis, a complex process partially controlled by an enzyme called tyrosinase.

When it comes to selecting treatment for these areas, one factor to consider is the depth of the discolored pigment. Most of the time discoloration is superficial. In a few cases, the discoloration lies deep in the dermis. If the pigment is in the epidermis, it can be helped with skin-lightening products. If the pigment is deeper, laser treatments are a consideration. For topical treatments, according to an article in The American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (September-October 2000, pages 261–268), "[T]opical hydroquinone 2 to 4% alone or in combination with tretinoin 0.05 to 0.1% is an established treatment. Topical azelaic acid 15 to 20% can be as efficacious as hydroquinone…. Tretinoin is especially useful in treating hyperpigmentation of photoaged skin. Kojic acid, alone or in combination with glycolic acid or hydroquinone, has shown good results, due to its inhibitory action on tyrosinase. Chemical peels are [also] useful to treat melasma."

Sunscreen
Diligent use of a sunscreen alone allows some repair as well as protection from further photodamage (Source: The British Journal of Dermatology, December 1996, pages 867–875). No other aspect of controlling or reducing skin discolorations is as important as the use of sunscreen, SPF 15 or greater with the UVA-protecting ingredients of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone. Using skin-lightening products or laser treatments without a sunscreen is a waste of time. Sun exposure is one of the primary causes of hypermelanin production. Before you look at any other treatment for discolorations this is the first and most practical step.

Laser Treatments
Pigment deep in the dermis does not respond well to topical agents. Resurfacing procedures such as chemical peels and laser treatments may help some of these problems, but the results are not consistent, problems can occur, and without the strict use of a sunscreen with UVA-protecting ingredients the discolorations almost always come back. Moreover, laser treatments of this kind are often a problem for those with darker skin tones. However, when laser treatments do work they can make a marked difference in the appearance of the skin. The results can be startling, and completely eliminate any appearance of the problem.

Hydroquinone
Over-the-counter skin-lightening products often contain 2% hydroquinone, while 4% concentrations are available only from a physician. Hydroquinone is a strong inhibitor of melanin production (source: Journal of Dermatological Science, August, 2001, Supplemental pages S68–S75), meaning that it lightens skin color. Hydroquinone does not bleach the skin (calling it a bleaching agent is a misnomer); it only disrupts the synthesis of melanin hyperpigmentation.

In the medical literature Hydroquinone is considered the primary topical ingredient for inhibiting melanin production. Using it in combination with the other options listed can make a difference in skin discolorations (Sources: Journal of Cosmetic Science, May-June 1998, pages 208–290; Dermatological Surgery, May 1996, pages 443–447).

Some concerns about hydroquinone's safety on skin have been expressed, but the research indicates reactions are minor or a result of using extremely high concentrations (Source: Critical Reviews in Toxicology, May 1999, pages 283–330).

According to Howard I. Maibach, M.D., professor of dermatology at the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, "Overall, adverse events reported with the use of hydroquinone... have been relatively few and minor in nature.... To date there is no evidence of adverse systemic reactions following the use of hydroquinone"?and it has been around for over 30 years in skin-care products. Maibach has also stated that "hydroquinone is undoubtedly the most active and safest skin-depigmenting substance... ." Research supporting Maibach's contentions was published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1998, pages 301–317.

Hydroquinone can be an unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. When exposed to air or sunlight it can turn a strange shade of brown. It is essential, when you are considering a hydroquinone product, to make sure it is packaged in a non-transparent container that doesn't let light in and minimizes air exposure. Hydroquinone products packaged in jars are not recommended, because they become ineffective shortly after opening.

Tretinoin
A great deal of research shows that the use of tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid) is effective in treating skin discolorations (Sources: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, July 1999, pages 305–310; International Journal of Dermatology, April 1998, pages 286–292; Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, March 1997, pages S27–S36). However, the response to treatment is less than with hydroquinone or azelaic acid. Results can also take far longer with tretinoin than with other treatments, requiring at least six months or so before improvement is seen. Because of this, tretinoin is generally not recommended as the only option for skin discoloration but it can be used in combination with other effective topicals (source: eMedicine Journal, www.emedicine.com, November 15, 2001, Volume 2, Number 11). Even though tretinoin can be disappointing for skin lightening, that should in no way diminish the role it plays in the improvement in skin's cell production, collagen production, elasticity, texture, and dermal thickness. Tretinoin, combined with more effective skin-lightening treatments, is a powerful alliance in the battle against sun-damaged and aged skin.

Alpha Hydroxy Acids
In and of themselves, alpha hydroxy acid products in concentrations of 4% to 10% are not effective for inhibiting melanin production and won't lighten skin discolorations. However, there is evidence that in combination with other treatments such as kojic acid, hydroquinone, azelaic acid, and laser resurfacing they can be very effective for improving the overall appearance of sun-damaged skin and possibly helping the other ingredients penetrate the skin better.

Much like laser treatments, alpha hydroxy acid peels (using 50% concentrations) have impressive results for removing skin discolorations (Source: Dermatological Surgery, June 1999, pages 450–454). Only a physician should perform these types of facial peels.

Kojic Acid
Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice for use in the manufacturing of sake, the Japanese rice wine. There is convincing research, both in vitro (in a test tube) and in vivo (on a live subject), showing kojic acid to be effective for inhibiting melanin production (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research, August 2001, pages 307–311). Glycolic or kojic acid, or glycolic acid with hydroquinone, are highly effective in reducing the pigment in melasma patients (Source: Dermatological Surgery, May, 1996 pages 443–447). So why aren't there more products available containing kojic acid? Kojic acid is an extremely unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Upon exposure to air or sunlight it can turn a strange shade of brown and lose its efficacy. Many cosmetic companies use kojic dipalmitate as an alternative because it is far more stable in formulations. However, there is no research showing kojic dipalmitate to be as effective as kojic acid, although is it a good antioxidant.

Azelaic Acid
Azelaic acid is a component of grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is effective against a number of skin conditions when applied topically in a cream formulation at a 20% concentration. Azelaic acid is recommended for the treatment of acne, but there is also research showing it to be effective for skin discolorations. For example, "The efficacy of 20% azelaic acid cream and 4% hydroquinone cream, both used in conjunction with a broad-spectrum sunscreen, against melasma was investigated in a 24-week, double-blind study with 329 women. Over the treatment period the azelaic acid cream yielded 65% good or excellent results; no significant treatment differences were observed with regard to overall rating, reduction in lesion size, and pigmentary intensity. Severe side effects such as allergic sensitization or exogenous ochronosis were not observed with azelaic acid." (Source: International Journal of Dermatology, December 1991, pages 893–895.) However, other research suggests that azelaic acid is more irritating than hydroquinone mixed with glycolic acid or kojic acid (Source: eMedicine Journal, www.emedicine.com, November 5, 2001, volume 2, number 11). Azelaic acid is a consideration for skin lightening if you have had problems using hydroquinone along with tretinoin.

Arbutin
Plant-derived skin-care ingredients send a definite siren call to consumers. Anyone developing "natural" alternatives to hydroquinone has an eager audience willing to give it a try. To that end, arbutin, a hydroquinone derivative from the leaves of the bearberry, cranberry and blueberry shrubs, and most types of pears, serves that purpose.

Because of arbutin's hydroquinone content it can have melanin-inhibiting properties (Source: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, February 1996, pages 765–769). Although the research describing arbutin's effectiveness is persuasive (even if most of the research has been done in vitro), concentration protocols have not been established. That means we don't know how much arbutin it takes to lighten skin. Moreover, most cosmetics companies don't use "arbutin" in their products because there are patents controlling its use for skin lightening. To get around this problem many cosmetics companies use plant extracts that contain arbutin, such as bearberry. Unfortunately, there is no research that shows the plant source of arbutin has any impact on skin, especially not in the tiny amounts used in cosmetics. The only product I've seen with a pure and rather high concentration of arbutin (about 5%) is Shiseido's Whitess Intensive Skin Brightener ($120 for 1.4 ounces). I doubt if it's really worth the price just to see if this can have an effect. Besides, this product contains alcohol and menthol, which would make it potentially as irritating as hydroquinone.

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
This form of vitamin C is considered stable and is an effective antioxidant for skin. There is only a single study showing it to be effective for lighteneing skin by inhibiting melanin production (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, January 1996, pages 29–33). The study concluded that a moisturizer with a 10% concentration of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate "suppressed melanin formation… The lightening effect was significant in 19 of 34 patients with chloasma or senile freckles and in 3 of 25 patients with normal skin." One study is not exactly anything to write home about, not to mention that there are no products on the market containing 10% magnesium ascorbyl phosphate at present. Most skin-care products containing magnesium ascorbyl phosphate have less than a 1% concentration.

Combination Treatments
Diligent use of a sunscreen with the UVA-protecting ingredients of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone is the first line of defense when tackling skin discolorations. Many researchers feel that 2% to 4% hydroquinone lotions can be more effective when combined with Retin-A or Renova and AHAs. Higher strengths of hydroquinone (over 2%) are available only from a physician and can possibly help deeper sources of pigment discoloration, although they can be a problem for darker skin tones. It is also extremely helpful to consider chemical peels or laser treatments to remove or lighten skin discolorations and then use topicals to maintain the improvement (Source: Cosmetic Dermatology, August 2001, pages 13–16).
[QUOTE=ShanghaiBabe] Excerpted from The Beauty Bible, 2nd edition



Brown spots on skin are called chloasma or melasma and can happen for several reasons. One side effect of sun damage is the skin discoloration known as solar lentigenes, also known as liver, sun or age spots. They are definitely not associated with the liver, but they can have everything to do with unprotected sun exposure. On lighter skin types, solar lentigenes emerge as small brown patches of freckling that grow over time. On women with darker skin tones, they appear as small patches of ashen-gray skin.

Brown or ashen patches of skin can also occur due to birth control pills, pregnancy, or estrogen replacement therapy. In those instances the discoloration is referred to as pregnancy or hormone masking.

Regardless of the source, the issue is the same: site-specific, increased melanin production, or hyperpigmentation. Melanin is the pigment or coloring agent of skin. It is created by melanin synthesis, a complex process partially controlled by an enzyme called tyrosinase.

When it comes to selecting treatment for these areas, one factor to consider is the depth of the discolored pigment. Most of the time discoloration is superficial. In a few cases, the discoloration lies deep in the dermis. If the pigment is in the epidermis, it can be helped with skin-lightening products. If the pigment is deeper, laser treatments are a consideration. For topical treatments, according to an article in The American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (September-October 2000, pages 261–268), "[T]opical hydroquinone 2 to 4% alone or in combination with tretinoin 0.05 to 0.1% is an established treatment. Topical azelaic acid 15 to 20% can be as efficacious as hydroquinone…. Tretinoin is especially useful in treating hyperpigmentation of photoaged skin. Kojic acid, alone or in combination with glycolic acid or hydroquinone, has shown good results, due to its inhibitory action on tyrosinase. Chemical peels are [also] useful to treat melasma."

Sunscreen
Diligent use of a sunscreen alone allows some repair as well as protection from further photodamage (Source: The British Journal of Dermatology, December 1996, pages 867–875). No other aspect of controlling or reducing skin discolorations is as important as the use of sunscreen, SPF 15 or greater with the UVA-protecting ingredients of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone. Using skin-lightening products or laser treatments without a sunscreen is a waste of time. Sun exposure is one of the primary causes of hypermelanin production. Before you look at any other treatment for discolorations this is the first and most practical step.

Laser Treatments
Pigment deep in the dermis does not respond well to topical agents. Resurfacing procedures such as chemical peels and laser treatments may help some of these problems, but the results are not consistent, problems can occur, and without the strict use of a sunscreen with UVA-protecting ingredients the discolorations almost always come back. Moreover, laser treatments of this kind are often a problem for those with darker skin tones. However, when laser treatments do work they can make a marked difference in the appearance of the skin. The results can be startling, and completely eliminate any appearance of the problem.

Hydroquinone
Over-the-counter skin-lightening products often contain 2% hydroquinone, while 4% concentrations are available only from a physician. Hydroquinone is a strong inhibitor of melanin production (source: Journal of Dermatological Science, August, 2001, Supplemental pages S68–S75), meaning that it lightens skin color. Hydroquinone does not bleach the skin (calling it a bleaching agent is a misnomer); it only disrupts the synthesis of melanin hyperpigmentation.

In the medical literature Hydroquinone is considered the primary topical ingredient for inhibiting melanin production. Using it in combination with the other options listed can make a difference in skin discolorations (Sources: Journal of Cosmetic Science, May-June 1998, pages 208–290; Dermatological Surgery, May 1996, pages 443–447).

Some concerns about hydroquinone's safety on skin have been expressed, but the research indicates reactions are minor or a result of using extremely high concentrations (Source: Critical Reviews in Toxicology, May 1999, pages 283–330).

According to Howard I. Maibach, M.D., professor of dermatology at the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, "Overall, adverse events reported with the use of hydroquinone... have been relatively few and minor in nature.... To date there is no evidence of adverse systemic reactions following the use of hydroquinone"?and it has been around for over 30 years in skin-care products. Maibach has also stated that "hydroquinone is undoubtedly the most active and safest skin-depigmenting substance... ." Research supporting Maibach's contentions was published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1998, pages 301–317.

Hydroquinone can be an unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. When exposed to air or sunlight it can turn a strange shade of brown. It is essential, when you are considering a hydroquinone product, to make sure it is packaged in a non-transparent container that doesn't let light in and minimizes air exposure. Hydroquinone products packaged in jars are not recommended, because they become ineffective shortly after opening.

Tretinoin
A great deal of research shows that the use of tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid) is effective in treating skin discolorations (Sources: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, July 1999, pages 305–310; International Journal of Dermatology, April 1998, pages 286–292; Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, March 1997, pages S27–S36). However, the response to treatment is less than with hydroquinone or azelaic acid. Results can also take far longer with tretinoin than with other treatments, requiring at least six months or so before improvement is seen. Because of this, tretinoin is generally not recommended as the only option for skin discoloration but it can be used in combination with other effective topicals (source: eMedicine Journal, www.emedicine.com, November 15, 2001, Volume 2, Number 11). Even though tretinoin can be disappointing for skin lightening, that should in no way diminish the role it plays in the improvement in skin's cell production, collagen production, elasticity, texture, and dermal thickness. Tretinoin, combined with more effective skin-lightening treatments, is a powerful alliance in the battle against sun-damaged and aged skin.

Alpha Hydroxy Acids
In and of themselves, alpha hydroxy acid products in concentrations of 4% to 10% are not effective for inhibiting melanin production and won't lighten skin discolorations. However, there is evidence that in combination with other treatments such as kojic acid, hydroquinone, azelaic acid, and laser resurfacing they can be very effective for improving the overall appearance of sun-damaged skin and possibly helping the other ingredients penetrate the skin better.

Much like laser treatments, alpha hydroxy acid peels (using 50% concentrations) have impressive results for removing skin discolorations (Source: Dermatological Surgery, June 1999, pages 450–454). Only a physician should perform these types of facial peels.

Kojic Acid
Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice for use in the manufacturing of sake, the Japanese rice wine. There is convincing research, both in vitro (in a test tube) and in vivo (on a live subject), showing kojic acid to be effective for inhibiting melanin production (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research, August 2001, pages 307–311). Glycolic or kojic acid, or glycolic acid with hydroquinone, are highly effective in reducing the pigment in melasma patients (Source: Dermatological Surgery, May, 1996 pages 443–447). So why aren't there more products available containing kojic acid? Kojic acid is an extremely unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Upon exposure to air or sunlight it can turn a strange shade of brown and lose its efficacy. Many cosmetic companies use kojic dipalmitate as an alternative because it is far more stable in formulations. However, there is no research showing kojic dipalmitate to be as effective as kojic acid, although is it a good antioxidant.

Azelaic Acid
Azelaic acid is a component of grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is effective against a number of skin conditions when applied topically in a cream formulation at a 20% concentration. Azelaic acid is recommended for the treatment of acne, but there is also research showing it to be effective for skin discolorations. For example, "The efficacy of 20% azelaic acid cream and 4% hydroquinone cream, both used in conjunction with a broad-spectrum sunscreen, against melasma was investigated in a 24-week, double-blind study with 329 women. Over the treatment period the azelaic acid cream yielded 65% good or excellent results; no significant treatment differences were observed with regard to overall rating, reduction in lesion size, and pigmentary intensity. Severe side effects such as allergic sensitization or exogenous ochronosis were not observed with azelaic acid." (Source: International Journal of Dermatology, December 1991, pages 893–895.) However, other research suggests that azelaic acid is more irritating than hydroquinone mixed with glycolic acid or kojic acid (Source: eMedicine Journal, www.emedicine.com, November 5, 2001, volume 2, number 11). Azelaic acid is a consideration for skin lightening if you have had problems using hydroquinone along with tretinoin.

Arbutin
Plant-derived skin-care ingredients send a definite siren call to consumers. Anyone developing "natural" alternatives to hydroquinone has an eager audience willing to give it a try. To that end, arbutin, a hydroquinone derivative from the leaves of the bearberry, cranberry and blueberry shrubs, and most types of pears, serves that purpose.

Because of arbutin's hydroquinone content it can have melanin-inhibiting properties (Source: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, February 1996, pages 765–769). Although the research describing arbutin's effectiveness is persuasive (even if most of the research has been done in vitro), concentration protocols have not been established. That means we don't know how much arbutin it takes to lighten skin. Moreover, most cosmetics companies don't use "arbutin" in their products because there are patents controlling its use for skin lightening. To get around this problem many cosmetics companies use plant extracts that contain arbutin, such as bearberry. Unfortunately, there is no research that shows the plant source of arbutin has any impact on skin, especially not in the tiny amounts used in cosmetics. The only product I've seen with a pure and rather high concentration of arbutin (about 5%) is Shiseido's Whitess Intensive Skin Brightener ($120 for 1.4 ounces). I doubt if it's really worth the price just to see if this can have an effect. Besides, this product contains alcohol and menthol, which would make it potentially as irritating as hydroquinone.

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
This form of vitamin C is considered stable and is an effective antioxidant for skin. There is only a single study showing it to be effective for lighteneing skin by inhibiting melanin production (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, January 1996, pages 29–33). The study concluded that a moisturizer with a 10% concentration of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate "suppressed melanin formation… The lightening effect was significant in 19 of 34 patients with chloasma or senile freckles and in 3 of 25 patients with normal skin." One study is not exactly anything to write home about, not to mention that there are no products on the market containing 10% magnesium ascorbyl phosphate at present. Most skin-care products containing magnesium ascorbyl phosphate have less than a 1% concentration.

Combination Treatments
Diligent use of a sunscreen with the UVA-protecting ingredients of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone is the first line of defense when tackling skin discolorations. Many researchers feel that 2% to 4% hydroquinone lotions can be more effective when combined with Retin-A or Renova and AHAs. Higher strengths of hydroquinone (over 2%) are available only from a physician and can possibly help deeper sources of pigment discoloration, although they can be a problem for darker skin tones. It is also extremely helpful to consider chemical peels or laser treatments to remove or lighten skin discolorations and then use topicals to maintain the improvement (Source: Cosmetic Dermatology, August 2001, pages 13–16).
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
starry
post Jul 14 2004, 09:19 AM
Post #2


AF Supreme
Group Icon

Group: Members
Posts: 12,154
Joined: 24-May 04
From: 34°N 118°W




Do you know if these products would fade freckles and age spots?
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Shanghaibabe@Tor...
post Jul 14 2004, 09:22 AM
Post #3


AF Guru
Group Icon

Group: Members
Posts: 3,072
Joined: 13-July 04
From: Sex in the City




yes they can help fade away it but not complettly 100% , unless you visit the cosmetic surgery office where they use lazer treatment for you. this can reduce up to almost 100% but those over the counter may be can reduce up to 50% is the maximum.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
sniff
post Jul 14 2004, 10:20 AM
Post #4


AF Pro
Group Icon

Group: Members
Posts: 2,446
Joined: 17-May 04
From: over there --->




the MSDS for hydroquinone:

updated 2004


General
Synonyms: hydroquinol, quinol, p-benzenediol, 1,4-benzenediol, p-dihydroxybenzene, p-hydroxyphenol, 1,4-dihydroxybenzene, dihydroquinone, pyrogentistic acid, arctuvin, phiaquin, tecquinol, tenox HQ, tequinol
Molecular formula: C6H6O2
CAS No: 123-31-9
EINECS No: 204-617-8
Physical data
Appearance: off-white powder or white needle-like crystals
Melting point: 172 - 175 C
Boiling point: 285 C
Vapour density: 3.81 (air = 1)
Vapour pressure: 1 mm Hg at 132 C
Density (g cm-3): 1.33
Flash point:
Explosion limits:
Autoignition temperature: 498 C
Water solubility:

Stability
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases. Light and air-sensitive.

Toxicology
Possible carcinogen. Severe skin irritant. Harmful by inhalation and ingestion. May cause sensitization. Eye and respiratory irritant.
Toxicity data
(The meaning of any abbreviations which appear in this section is given here.)
ORL-HMN LDLO 29 mg kg-1
ORL-RAT LD50 320 mg kg-1
IPR-RBT LD50 125 mg kg-1
SKN-MAM LD50 5970 mg kg-1
ORL-DOG LD50 200 mg kg-1

Risk phrases
(The meaning of any risk phrases which appear in this section is given here.)
R20 R22.


Environmental information
Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Transport information
(The meaning of any UN hazard codes which appear in this section is given here.)
UN No 2662. CGD UK Major hazard class: 6.1. Packing group: III
Personal protection
Safety glasses, gloves, adequate ventilation. Treat as a potential carcinogen.
Safety phrases
(The meaning of any safety phrases which appear in this section is given here.)
S24 S25 S39.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Shanghaibabe@Tor...
post Jul 14 2004, 01:05 PM
Post #5


AF Guru
Group Icon

Group: Members
Posts: 3,072
Joined: 13-July 04
From: Sex in the City




QUOTE (sniff @ Jul 14 2004, 11:20 AM)
the MSDS for hydroquinone:

updated 2004


General
Synonyms: hydroquinol, quinol, p-benzenediol, 1,4-benzenediol, p-dihydroxybenzene, p-hydroxyphenol, 1,4-dihydroxybenzene, dihydroquinone, pyrogentistic acid, arctuvin, phiaquin, tecquinol, tenox HQ, tequinol
Molecular formula: C6H6O2
CAS No: 123-31-9
EINECS No: 204-617-8
Physical data
Appearance: off-white powder or white needle-like crystals
Melting point: 172 - 175 C
Boiling point: 285 C
Vapour density: 3.81 (air = 1)
Vapour pressure: 1 mm Hg at 132 C
Density (g cm-3): 1.33
Flash point:
Explosion limits:
Autoignition temperature: 498 C
Water solubility:

Stability
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases. Light and air-sensitive.

Toxicology
Possible carcinogen. Severe skin irritant. Harmful by inhalation and ingestion. May cause sensitization. Eye and respiratory irritant.
Toxicity data
(The meaning of any abbreviations which appear in this section is given here.)
ORL-HMN LDLO 29 mg kg-1
ORL-RAT LD50 320 mg kg-1
IPR-RBT LD50 125 mg kg-1
SKN-MAM LD50 5970 mg kg-1
ORL-DOG LD50 200 mg kg-1

Risk phrases
(The meaning of any risk phrases which appear in this section is given here.)
R20 R22.


Environmental information
Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Transport information
(The meaning of any UN hazard codes which appear in this section is given here.)
UN No 2662. CGD UK Major hazard class: 6.1. Packing group: III
Personal protection
Safety glasses, gloves, adequate ventilation. Treat as a potential carcinogen.
Safety phrases
(The meaning of any safety phrases which appear in this section is given here.)
S24 S25 S39.

thank you for the information beerchug.gif
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Andromeda
post Jul 15 2004, 02:47 AM
Post #6


AF Geek
Group Icon

Group: Members
Posts: 109
Joined: 7-July 04




How to get rid of those stretchmarks? eek.gif
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post

Reply to this topicStart new topic

 



Lo-Fi Version Time is now: 25th July 2014 - 12:48 AM