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Dr. Jose Rizal, Pride of the Malay race
Horitaka
post Jul 29 2004, 09:02 PM
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QUOTE
DR. JOSE RIZAL’S CHINESE ANCESTRY

Where Rizal got his name


4. Francisco Mercado was one of the seven sons of Capitan Juan. He was the father of Rizal. Francisco was only 12 years old when his father, Capitan Juan, died. Although Capitan Juan was a rich man, he did not have enough land to give his seven sons. It was, therefore, necessary for the sons to look for land to cultivate for a living. The Mercados were known to be good and industrious farmers. Because of his agricultural ability and industry, Francisco was able to raise a family that was financially comfortable. As a young man, Francisco was an industrious and efficient farmer, an honest and reliable worker so that the landowners were willing to give him land for cultivation. Craig observed about Francisco:

Francisco, in spite of his youth, became a tenant of his estate, as did some others of his family, for their Biñan holdings were not large enough to give farms to all of Capitan Juan’s sons. The landlord early recognized the agricultural ability of the Mercados by further allotment, as they could bring more under cultivation. Sometimes, Francisco was able to buy the holdings of others who were discouraged with their unsuccessful management.

Francisco attended the Latin school in Biñan, where young Rizal would study his Latin. He went also to the College of San Jose in Manila, studying Latin and philosophy. Francisco is described by Palma:

He was 40, of solid shoulders, strong constitution, rather tall than short, of serious and reflective mien, with prominent forehead and large dark eyes. A pure Filipino.

Francisco married Teodora Alonzo, whose father, Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo, was described as “very Chinese in appearance.” He was believed to be a descendant of Lakandula, a Bornean Muslim. Lorenzo’s mother, Maria Florentina, belonged to the famous Florentina family of Chinese mestizos of Baliuag, Bulacan. Teodora Alonzo belonged to families of prominent Filipino professionals both in private and in the government.

Those who are unfamiliar with the life history of Dr. Rizal might be wondering why Jose Rizal was Rizal and his father, mother, brother, sisters and relatives were Mercados. The great-great-grandfather of Rizal was Domingo Lam-co. Why is it that Lam-co’s descendants were Mercado, not Lam-co, and Rizal was Rizal, and not Mercado?

As mentioned earlier, Lam-co, in his baptism, took the name Domingo Lam-co obviously to remember that he was baptized on Sunday, or Domingo. But when his son, Francisco, was baptized, he did not give him the family name Lam-co. Instead he gave him the name Mercado or Francisco Mercado. Craig, speaking of this change, wrote:

The Lam-co family was not given to the practice of taking the names of their godparents. Mercado recalls both an honest Spanish encomendero of the region, also named Francisco, and a worthy mestizo friar, now remembered for his botanical studies, but it is not likely that these influenced Domingo Lam-co in choosing the name for his son. He gave his boy a name which, in the careless Castilians of the country, was but a Spanish translation of the Chinese name by which his ancestor had been called. Sangley, Mercado and merchant mean much the same; Francisco, therefore, set out in life with a surname that would free him from the prejudice that followed those with Chinese names and yet would remind him of his Chinese ancestry.

As regards the change of name from Mercado to Rizal, let us read what Russell and Rodriguez wrote:

. . . the wise old Governor-General Claveria . . . provided a list of Spanish names, apparently copied in alphabetical order from the Madrid directory, and required the head of each family to take one of these, add it to the rear or front of whatever other names he was carrying, and hand it down to his children. The father of Francisco Mercado met the spirit of the decree but evaded its letter. He chose for his official name that of Rizal, which was not on the governor’s list but passed muster. It is a corruption of the Spanish word ricial and means a green field or pasture; being here a poetic recognition, maybe, of the blessed state of Mercado’s own rentals.

But the name Mercado remained the family name for the Mercados. Only Jose Rizal took the name Rizal. Jose Rizal is known only as Jose Rizal, not Jose Mercado. For the difference in the names, Rizal gave the following explanation to his friend Blumentritt:

When you write to my brother, address him Paciano Mercado . . . After the sad catastrophe (1872), he had to leave the university since he was a liberal and the friars did not like him because of his having lived with Burgos. At that time, I had to go to Manila to study, and in order not to have difficulties in my studies, I was advised to use our second name, Rizal. For some time, I am the only Rizal because at home my parents, my sisters, my brother, and my relatives always preferred the old surname Mercado. Our father’s name was in effect Mercado; but in the Philippines there are many Mercados who are not our relatives. There was an alcalde, a friend of the family, who used our name Rizal. My family, however, did not mind this, because even now I alone use the name. Accordingly, does it not appear as if I were an illegitimate son?

My father and all my family remain valiantly united permanently loyal to the Filipino party, and my brother is much braver in exile than he was before. My whole family now carries the name Rizal instead of Mercado because the name Rizal signifies persecution. Good. I want also to stick with them and be worthy of the name of the family. . . .

Although fragmentary and incomplete, the above data about Rizal’s lineage of four generations suggest the following conclusions:

1. Rizal’s ancestors of four generations were predominantly of Chinese blood in both paternal and maternal sides.

2. Considering the achievements and successes of the Mercados, it is safe to say that they were of the intellectual and industrious families. They were all well-to-do leaders, respectable and influential men among their peers—Chinese, Filipinos, Spaniards and others. From Domingo to Francisco, Rizal’s father, one can see the presence or personality traits necessary for dynamic leadership—honesty, sincerity, loyalty, intelligence, independence of thinking, deep and sincere conviction, and fearlessness to meet eventualities. All these personality traits were found in Rizal’s personality in high degree.

3. These facts seem to give evidence that Lam-co came to the Philippines, not because of famine in China but because of political troubles. The following quotations from Craig are pertinent to the point:

The Chinese conditions of these early days are worth recalling, for influences strikingly similar to those which affected the life of Jose Rizal in his native land were then at work. There were troubled times in the ancient “Middle Kingdom,” the earlier name of the corruption of the Malay Tchina (China) by which we know it. The Chinese leader patriots wanted reform, by education, through Heaven-Earth-Men Brotherhood.

Famine in his native district or plague which followed it may have been the cause of Lam-co’s leaving home, but it was more probably political troubles which transferred to the Philippines that intelligent and industrious stock whose descendants have proved such loyal and creditable sons of their adopted country.

The possibility that Lam-co came to the Philippines because of political troubles in China poses an interesting speculation. It was indeed prophetic of the political troubles that Rizal had to see since his childhood, violently crushing the Filipinos, and had actually to suffer from his early youth to his death.

4.            That Dr. Jose Rizal, the greatest hero of the Filipinos, was the most important Chinese contribution to the Philippines. This statement does not mean that Rizal was not a Filipino. Capitan Juan, let us recall, reconsidered himself and his children Filipinos. Palma considered Francisco Mercado, Rizal’s father, “a pure Filipino.” From this statement of Palma, one can gather that purity of citizenship or nationality is not a matter of blood or race but one of sentiment and loyalty. It is therefore possible to have Filipinos of pure Filipino blood who may not be pure Filipino in sentiment and loyalty. When we say that Rizal is the greatest and the most significant Chinese contribution we simply mean that the greatest Filipino hero had Chinese ancestors, who, although they had Chinese blood from Lam-co to Francisco, were good, industrious, honest and loyal Filipino citizens.

V. The oneness of mankind

History tells us that the attempt to unite peoples by conquest, destroying and enslaving others, had been a failure. We read of this attempt that took place during the times of Darius; the Pharaohs; the Caesars; Alexander the Great; Napoleon and others. During the last 25 or 30 years, we had seen this attempt in two great deadly and destructive world wars. Peoples cannot be blended into one great family of mankind by spears, swords and shields or by boats, bullets and bombs. Such metals would only lead people to hatred, intrigue, revenge and destruction. We also have read and seen that peoples cannot be blended into one great family of mankind by the spirit of haughtiness, intolerance, superiority of race, color, culture or religion. This would lead to greater hatred and intolerance.

The lessons in history teach us that the blending of peoples into one great family of mankind could be achieved only through peaceful and friendly contributions to each other in the forms of natural and human resources—economy, technology, philosophy, religion, government and human beings. But the greater and more significant of the two is the human being—it creates human power and leadership. This form of contribution is beautifully illustrated by the contributions of different peoples to the Filipinos, especially to Filipino leadership in Dr. Jose Rizal himself. Craig, speaking on this point about Rizal, wrote:

He was a typical Filipino, for few persons in this land of mixed blood could boast a greater mixture than his. Practically all the ethnic elements, perhaps even the Negrito in the far past, combined in his blood. All his ancestors, except the doubtful strain of the Negrito, had been immigrants to the Philippines—early Malays, and late Borneans, Chinese of prehistoric times, and the refugees from the Tartar dominion, and Spaniards of old Castile and Valencia—representatives of all the various peoples who have blended to make the strength of the Philippine race.

The quotation points to the fact that there are many Filipino leaders, past and present, whose blood came from ancestors who, at the beginning were not Filipinos, but later on, they and their descendants, became true, pure and loyal Filipinos. To be sure, new blood from other peoples are being added to the already mixed Filipino blood out of which Filipino leaders have been produced. However, leadership in any country or in any people is the dynamic result or function of heredity and environment—social, economic, technological, political. In other words, leadership is the product not only of its ancestry but also of its own effective environment that serves as crucible that refines and crystallizes men or women for leadership.

In view of all these facts, the Philippines was and is the true melting pot of races and cultures, the epitome of world racial and cultural history and development, a prophecy to the realization of the oneness of mankind, that may lead all the peoples of the earth into one beautiful symphony of life whose melody is Deus et Humanitas.

Source: The Fookien Times Yearbook, 30th Anniversary

September 1956.

References

1              Craig, Austin, Rizal’s Lineage, Life and Minor Writings (Manila: Philippine Education Co. Inc., 1927).

2              Tion Geng Fheng, “China’s International Cultural Relation,” Fookien Times Yearbook (1953), pp. 144-145.

3              Manuel, E. A., “Chinese Elements in the Tagalog Language,” Filipiniana Publications (Manila: 1948).

4              Wang Teh-Ming, “Historico-Cultural Study of Some Early Chinese Records and their Relations to Pre-Spanish Philippine Culture” (U.P., unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1954).

5              Palma, Rafael, The Pride of the Malay Race (Prentice-Hall Inc., 1949).

6              Russell and Rodriguez, The Hero of the Filipinos (The Century Company, 1928).

7                Epistolario Rizalino, vol. 5 (Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1938).

Domingo Lam-co’s Genealogy

Generation                All Surnamed Cua

1st                ShanWeng

2nd        Nian Chi Zhi Zheng

3rd          Yun Cong

4th          Zhi Gong

5th          Song Lo

6th          Szu Gong

7th          Wan Ching

8th          Zong Xian

9th          Men Gong

10th        Hong Gong

11th        Zhong Guo

12th        Ting Zuo

13th        Bai Xia

14th        He Fu

15th        Cai Jing

16th        Cong You

17th        Zhang Ly

18th        Na

19th    Lam (Cua-Lam or Domingo Lam-co)

Source: Cua Genealogy, Siongque, China

The above Chinese genealogy shows that Dr. Jose Rizal was a 23rd-generation Cua of Siongque, China.
 
 

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JMAC
post Jul 29 2004, 09:21 PM
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Interesting post Horitaka! Thanks! beerchug.gif
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anjing
post Jul 29 2004, 09:35 PM
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he has a very long name ha.....
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Ek-ek
post Jul 31 2004, 07:24 PM
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Jose Rizal's Great great grandfather had his name hispanized!

It is good that someone had traced Jose Rizal's geneology
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dalawapo
post Aug 1 2004, 01:26 PM
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WHY DO PPL KEEEP SAYING ALL FILIPINOS ARE MESTIZOS LIKE WE ARE DEFICIENT AND UNABLE TO SAY WE ARE SIMPLY MALAY?! sure.gif

we Malays have our own native culture & native languages. WE ARE STILL AN AUSTRONESIAN PEOPLE AUSTRONESIAN IS OUR ROOTS & we simply have chinese, hindu, arab, spanish, & american INFLUENCES in our Austronesian culture & Austronesian languages!

What language family is Filipino (based on Tagalog) Classifed under? THE AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY!!!!

This post has been edited by dalawapo: Aug 1 2004, 01:39 PM
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Ek-ek
post Aug 1 2004, 05:00 PM
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Yes, but for Filipinos, the term "Mestizo " means loosely called "mixed breed" of foreign and local .

You are called a Spaniard mestizo if you had a Spaniard blood, Chinese mestizo if you had Chinese blood etc............
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JMAC
post Aug 1 2004, 05:10 PM
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Ek-Ek so smart bowdown.gif
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Horitaka
post Aug 1 2004, 08:13 PM
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QUOTE (dalawapo @ Aug 1 2004, 02:26 PM)
WHY DO PPL KEEEP SAYING ALL FILIPINOS ARE MESTIZOS LIKE WE ARE DEFICIENT AND UNABLE TO SAY WE ARE SIMPLY MALAY?! sure.gif

we Malays have our own native culture & native languages. WE ARE STILL AN AUSTRONESIAN PEOPLE AUSTRONESIAN IS OUR ROOTS & we simply have chinese, hindu, arab, spanish, & american INFLUENCES in our Austronesian culture & Austronesian languages!

What language family is Filipino (based on Tagalog) Classifed under? THE AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY!!!!

Whats your point?
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Ek-ek
post Aug 1 2004, 08:23 PM
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QUOTE (JMAC @ Aug 2 2004, 07:10 AM)
Ek-Ek so smart bowdown.gif

icon_rolleyes.gif I could not say smart but if you asked any Filipinos , they will tell you that it is their perception that a mestizo is a person with mixed ancestry.

But in Central and South America it is different> icon_confused.gif
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Horitaka
post Aug 2 2004, 05:57 AM
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QUOTE (dalawapo @ Aug 1 2004, 02:26 PM)
WHY DO PPL KEEEP SAYING ALL FILIPINOS ARE MESTIZOS LIKE WE ARE DEFICIENT AND UNABLE TO SAY WE ARE SIMPLY MALAY?! sure.gif

we Malays have our own native culture & native languages. WE ARE STILL AN AUSTRONESIAN PEOPLE AUSTRONESIAN IS OUR ROOTS & we simply have chinese, hindu, arab, spanish, & american INFLUENCES in our Austronesian culture & Austronesian languages!

What language family is Filipino (based on Tagalog) Classifed under? THE AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY!!!!

No one on this thread said Filipinos are all Mestizos.

I know most kids these days think their half this half that like it makes em better or something, but all i was trying to say is Jose Rizal has Chinese blood. Is there something wrong with that dalawamo? Every one of your posts have this austronesian crap in it... I think everyone here already knows what language family tagalog or whatever filipino dialect they speak is in. what gives?
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BishoujoHunter
post Aug 2 2004, 06:11 AM
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QUOTE (Horitaka @ Aug 2 2004, 06:57 AM)
QUOTE (dalawapo @ Aug 1 2004, 02:26 PM)
WHY DO PPL KEEEP SAYING ALL FILIPINOS ARE MESTIZOS LIKE WE ARE DEFICIENT AND UNABLE TO SAY WE ARE SIMPLY MALAY?! sure.gif

we Malays have our own native culture & native languages. WE ARE STILL AN AUSTRONESIAN PEOPLE AUSTRONESIAN IS OUR ROOTS & we simply have chinese, hindu, arab, spanish, & american INFLUENCES in our Austronesian culture & Austronesian languages!

What language family is Filipino (based on Tagalog) Classifed under? THE AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY!!!!

No one on this thread said Filipinos are all Mestizos.

I know most kids these days think their half this half that like it makes em better or something, but all i was trying to say is Jose Rizal has Chinese blood. Is there something wrong with that dalawamo? Every one of your posts have this austronesian crap in it... I think everyone here already knows what language family tagalog or whatever filipino dialect they speak is in. what gives?

totoo po iyon
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Ek-ek
post Aug 2 2004, 05:51 PM
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Well, This topic is about Jose Rizal . Right?

So Jose Rizal is an example of Filipino- Chinese- Spaniard mestizo.

That is his bloodline.
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maogmang_aki
post Aug 6 2004, 05:35 AM
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yep! let's get back to Rizal kung saan hindi ako kumbinsido sa kanyang pagiging pambansang bayani ng Pinas.
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dalawapo
post Aug 6 2004, 05:54 AM
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jose rizal, pride of the malay race/???

icon_neutral.gif
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kim_kayie
post Aug 6 2004, 07:18 AM
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QUOTE (maogmang_aki @ Aug 6 2004, 06:35 AM)
yep! let's get back to Rizal kung saan hindi ako kumbinsido sa kanyang pagiging pambansang bayani ng Pinas.

bakit naman???
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Horitaka
post Aug 6 2004, 10:27 AM
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QUOTE (dalawapo @ Aug 6 2004, 06:54 AM)
jose rizal, pride of the malay race/???

icon_neutral.gif

that's what he is called
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joonson
post Aug 6 2004, 10:49 AM
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I never knew that Rizal's name came from different races... maybe i was absent during the time the class discussed this. embarassedlaugh.gif

All i know is that he has a very long name, its....

Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal y Realonda
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maogmang_aki
post Aug 6 2004, 06:17 PM
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QUOTE (kim_kayie @ Aug 6 2004, 08:18 AM)
QUOTE (maogmang_aki @ Aug 6 2004, 06:35 AM)
yep! let's get back to Rizal kung saan  hindi  ako kumbinsido sa kanyang pagiging pambansang bayani ng Pinas.

bakit naman???

eh kasi parang mas "kilala" lamang sya kumpara kila bonifacio atbp. kaya sya nataguriang Pambansang Bayani. at sino ba ang naghayag na gawin syang pambansang bayani? at kailan yon? panahon ng Amerikano... buti pa aralan mo na lang ang panahon kun kailan itinanghal si Rizal bilang pambansanng bayani... biggrin.gif :genius:
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kersten
post Aug 7 2004, 03:28 AM
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basta ang natatandaan ko, naging bayani sya dahil sa kanyang mga naisulat at sa pagiging martyr. wala din akong idea kung bakit ginawa syang bayani...siguro dahil sa pagkakapatay sa kanya icon_smile.gif
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Ek-ek
post Aug 7 2004, 05:22 PM
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QUOTE (maogmang_aki @ Aug 6 2004, 07:35 PM)
yep! let's get back to Rizal kung saan hindi ako kumbinsido sa kanyang pagiging pambansang bayani ng Pinas.

icon_rolleyes.gif Pasensiya ka na I like Jose Rizal than Bonifacio or Mariano Sakay!
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