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minta maklumat tentang sejarah【Gangga Negara】, sejarah melayu purba kat Perak
juzana
post May 7 2008, 10:13 PM
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Siapa yang ada maklumat tentang pembentukan sejarah 【Gangga Negara】?


ia kalau tak silap saya ditubuhkan pada masa yang sama dengan sejarah melayu purba di Kedah


lepas tu sama-sama dimusnahkan oleh 【Raja Cholan dari India】


sudah puas aku mencari sejarah lebih lanjut tentang【Gangga Negara】kat banyak perpustakaan
tapi langsung tak dapat


This post has been edited by juzana: May 7 2008, 10:13 PM
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AwangPembela
post May 9 2008, 12:39 AM
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Awak ni kan 'thread starter', cam na pulak tak dapat cari info? Apa la awak ni. laugh.gif

Gangga Negara

Gangga Negara is believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom mentioned in the Malay Annals that covered present day Beruas, Dinding and Manjung in the state of Perak, Malaysia with Raja Gangga Shah Johan as one of its kings. Researchers believe that the kingdom was centered at Beruas and it collapsed after an attack by King Rajendra Chola I of Coromandel, South India, between 1025 and 1026. Another Malay annals Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa known as Kedah Annals, Gangga Negara may have been founded by Merong Mahawangsa's son Raja Ganjil Sarjuna of Kedah, allegedly a descendant of Alexander the Great or by the Khmer royalties no later than the 2nd century.

Contents
1 Origin
2 Beruas
2.1 Beruas tree
3 See also
4 References
5 External links

Origin
Gangga Negara means "a city on the Ganges" in Sanskrit, the name derived from Ganganagar in northwest India where the Kambuja peoples inhabited. The Kambujas are Indo-Iranian Aryan clan of Indo-European family, originally localized in Pamirs and Badakshan. Commonly known as Hindu traders, they built their colonies in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago at the Mekong valley and also at the Malay archipelago in Funan, Chenla, Champa, Khmer, Angkor, Langkasuka, Sailendra, Srivijaya, etc. Historians found the Kambuja traders travelled from Gujarat to Sri Lanka and to Ligor (Nakhon Sri Thammarat) of northern Malay peninsular, overland to Thailand and Cambodia.

Beruas
The first research into the Beruas kingdom was conducted by Colonel James Low in 1849 and a century later, by HG Qlaritch-Males. According to the Museum and Antiquities Department, both researchers agreed that the Gangga Negara kingdom existed but could not ascertain the exact site. For years, villagers had unearthed artefacts, including tombstones with inscriptions that indicated that Beruas could have been the starting point for the spread of Islam in Peninsular Malaysia. Most of the artefacts, believed to be from the ancient kingdoms, are today displayed at the Beruas Museum dated back to the 5th and the 6th century. Artefacts on display include a 128kg cannon, swords, kris, coins, tin ingots, pottery from the Ming Dynasty and various eras, and large jars. Through these artifacts, it has been postulated that Pengkalan (Ipoh), Kinta Valley, Tanjung Rambutan, Bidor and Sungai Siput were part of the kingdom. Artifacts also suggest that the kingdom's center might have shifted several times. Gangga Negara was renamed to Beruas after the establishment of Islam there.

Beruas tree
The district of Bruas has found some royal Acehnese gravestones and this evidence has it linked to another historical source that a prince from Aceh of Sumatra rested at Beruas tree (Pokok Bruas), his name was Malik. History of Pasai did mentioned a Malik ul Salih whom was the first local Hindu Malay king to convert to Islam in 1267. Today the beruas trees have become extinct but can still be found in the nearby villages of Pengkalan Baru and Batang Kubu.

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sonofgunongjerai
post May 26 2008, 07:59 AM
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In Indian ancient Hindu tradition, the Kambujas belong to Kshatria caste means they are from the warriors and the administrators caste. These Kambujas people are people from outside of India or known as Barbarian maybe from Turks tribes or Persian tribes by the people in India in ancient times. Greeks and Romans had been in contact with people in India since before Christ Era.

Greeks under Alexander the Macedonian too once conquered Aryavarta (northern India) and there is proves about they maried local women maybe from Brahmin and Kshatria castes. Thus they have to embrace Brahmanism and practicing Brahmanism rites. It is said that they practice the culture of worshipping weaponary through some special rites. Now you can get some rough ideas about the myths in Malay history. Check this out for further detail:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kambojas
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PerisaiLangkasuk...
post May 28 2008, 12:09 AM
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The Kambujas were a fierce warrior tribe, believed to be of Iranian ancestry, who migrated to north-western regions of India n western Himalayas (Pamir n Badakshan).

The Kambujas also eventually reached SEA where they became elite mercenaries n sometimes married into local royal houses, e.g. in ancient Cambodia, which took its name from the Kambujas.

One possibility could be that they were descendants of Kambujiya (Cambyses), an ancient Persian warrior king who once ventured to India n was awarded the Daivi Khadga (Divine Sword) by king Kuvalashava of Kosala kingdom, near Magadha, for his bravery n valour in battle.

You could look up Daivi Khadga to read more about the legend.
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sonofgunongjerai
post Jun 1 2008, 08:37 AM
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This is some brief history about negeri Perak. Also the arrival of Islam in Perak being told briefly.

http://www.geocities.com/aizaris/sejarah_ringkas.html
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sonofgunongjerai
post Jun 1 2008, 09:15 AM
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Yea, Cambodia at the beginning was lead by a woman, whose name is Soma. There is a myth about Prahk Thong who fights with a Naga (half serpent half human) princess. Prahk Thong is believed to be a Brahmana or Brahmin from India with the surname Kaundinya.

I think that this Kaundinya guy must be from somewhere in Nepal or Benggal area today. Because I checked the surname Kaundinya is believed to be the name of a person in Panchavaiki (the 5 fortunates one) in Buddhism tradition. This Kaundinya is a person who mastered three Vedas, he was borned in Kabilavastu before Siddharta Gautama was borned. His family was a wealthy family. He is also one among the Brahmins who were present at Siddarth's naming ceremony and predicting that Siddartha will renounce the world and becomes an ascetic.

The tribe leads by Buddha Siddartha is called Sakya, from the word Sakya-Muni (the guru of the Sakya). Saka years used in Java and Thailand is believed to be modified from this tribe's calender. Sakya means Pale-Earth.

I believe that this Sakas or Sakyas are the tribes of Central Asia, in northern Iran.

The Sakas too were involved in Kurukshetra war in Indian's epic literary, they were described as Mlecchas (non-Indian and barbarians) together with the Yavanas, Pahlavas, and Kiratas. Yavanas are believed to be the Ionian or the Greek of India's western region. What do you think about the Ionians' influence in the myth of Raja Suran and Wan Empuk Wan Malini? These people are not the Vedic people, they are the people outside of India who later being Indianized and believed to be among the people who spread Indian culture in SEA.



Naga is mentioned in Mahabharata as supernatural race. Their first settlement is believed to be in Kashmir. Naga princess Soma is the queen of ancient Khmers. Are they the same Naga?
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AwangPembela
post Jun 1 2008, 09:55 AM
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Ion was just the Greek rendition of Javan (Hebrew: Yawan), son of Japhet (Arabic: Yafeth), thereby grandson of Noah (Nuh).

The descendants of Ion (Javan/Yawan) then settled the coastal areas of Asia Minor. The place became known as Ionia (i.e. the Land of Ion). The people were then called Ionians (Arabic: Yunani; Sanskrit: Yavana).

Scriptural (Jewish/Christian/Islamic) historians believe Javan (Ion/Yawan) to be the ultimate ancestor of all the Greeks, including the Ionian Greeks who lived in Asia Minor.

Scythians (Persian: Shaka; Sanksrit: Shakya) were believed to be descended from Scyth (Assyrian: Ishkuz; Arabic: Ishkuth), a grandson of Magog (Arabic: Ma'ajuj), thereby a great great grandson of Noah (Nuh).

Scythians were one of the many ancient Iranian tribes that lived, fought n warred in southern Europe, Central Asia, West Asia n the border regions between Persia n Hind. The Scythians eventually caused the collapse of the Assyrian empire in West Asia.

If the Kelantan royal geneaology records r correct, Raja Suran was prince Surendra. I can't recall his exact position in the Kelantan royal history offhand. I'll check again later.
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sonofgunongjerai
post Jun 2 2008, 04:51 AM
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What do you think about Nagas? Are they the tribe that inhabit the SEA mainland? Maybe they evolved to be Malays in Malaysia or the same with the Orang Asli in Malaysia, the Khmer, and the Mons?

Here is a link about the origin of Khmers in the ancient myths. I believe that we can get some facts through myths, they are not only the creation of ancient people but there must be hidden facts in the metaphors.

http://donlehmanjr.com/SEA/SEA5%20Chap/SEA5%20Ch3.htm
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sonofgunongjerai
post Jun 2 2008, 08:05 AM
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QUOTE(juzana @ May 8 2008, 11:13 AM) [snapback]3684617[/snapback]
Siapa yang ada maklumat tentang pembentukan sejarah 【Gangga Negara】?
ia kalau tak silap saya ditubuhkan pada masa yang sama dengan sejarah melayu purba di Kedah
lepas tu sama-sama dimusnahkan oleh 【Raja Cholan dari India】
sudah puas aku mencari sejarah lebih lanjut tentang【Gangga Negara】kat banyak perpustakaan
tapi langsung tak dapat


Cholan kingdom attacked the kingdoms around Malacca Straits around 11th century, so that means Gangga Nagara still exist in 11th century? I have read something about Gangga Nagara in Sejarah Melayu, but I can't recall clearly in which Cheritera does it mentioned.
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