so you want to know hmong, well, read these.
so you want to know hmong, well, read these.
Oct 18 2004, 12:05 PM
Joined: 29-September 04
Summer Program offers Students rare opportunity to learn Hmong history in China.
By: Yuepheng L. XIONG
St. Paul. Minn.
For approximately the last six generations, an estimated 300,000 Hmong have come to call Laos home. Most Hmong know their forefathers emigrated from China but that's been the extend of their historical knowledge. Few know of such legendary figures as Chiyou, Tao Tien and Ba yue Wu. Due to limited written documentation, migration and sometimes forced assimilation, Hmong history is seemingly lost and remains relatively obscure.
But relearning and interpreting Hmong roots recently began at China's Xiangtan University in Hunan province where a handful of U.S. Hmong students attended a two-month summer program in ancient Hmong history and culture. The program included a month of intensive (6-hour days, six day weeks) classroom lectures and a month of field research to Hmong villages in southwestern China. The summer program was initiated by Xiangtan philosophy professor, An-ping Lei. According to Professor Lei, the idea was born in the United States. As a participant in the 1995 International Symposium on Hmong People, Professor Lei discovered that Hmong in the States were particularly interested in learning more about their history in China. Upon returning to China, Lei and a group of Hmong-Chinese professors and research scholars founded a summer program at Xiangtan to share what they know of Hmong history.
Five students - Txianeng Vang, Cy Thao, Cziasarh Neng Yang (all from St. Paul, Minn.), Charles L. Fang of San Diego, Calif. and I - attended this past summer's program. According to the president of Xiangtan, we were their very first foreign students.
Professor Xin-fu Wu lectured on ancient Hmong history and reminded us that although Hmong history is richly unique, it will be rather difficult, perhaps near impossible, to put together all the scattered parts into one coherent piece. He acknowledged that this enormous challenge of uncovering the Hmong people's history is the duty and priority of Hmong scholars in years to come.
Professor Tong-jiang Yang, a 33 year-old Hmong-Chinese historian and author or co-author of more than 20 titles, took us as far back as half a million years, associating Hmong origination with the Peking man (Homo erectus pekinensis) whose remains were discovered not far from Beijing in the 1920s. However, Professor Yang agreed that Hmong history beyond 5000 years remains obscure and speculative. The term 'Miao" appeared in the Chinese Classics and early historical records such as the 'Zhanguo ce' ("Intrigues of the Warring States") and the "Shiji' ("Records of the Historians). After the Han Dynasty in 220 A.D., "Miao" disappeared from historical records until the Song Dynasty (A.D. 947-1279). The reason for the mysterious disappearance remains unclear.
Scholars seem to agree that the Hmong had gone through numerous dreadful periods in history in which the term 'Miao" also underwent some changes: from "Miao" to "Miao-Man" or "Man-Miao", "Wuling Man," 'Wuxi Man," or simply "Man," and then eventually back to "Miao". Whether the ancient Miao are today's Miao is debatable among scholars.
How did the term "Miao' or 'Hmong" come into being? Although the term 'Miao" appeared in Chinese historical records, the term 'Hmong' never did. What did they call themselves back then, "Hmong or 'Miao?'. The answer to this question varied from region to region. For example, the western Hunan Hmong call themselves "Guo-xiong". Those in eastern Guizhou call themselves "Amaot" or "Mo'. And those in Yunnan and southeastern Sichuan call themselves 'Meng" or "Hmong". They may indeed have called themselves "Hmong" as many assumed, but "Miao' is probably a name given to them by the Chinese, at least in writing. In his "Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The "Miao" Rebellion, 1854-1873," Robert Jenks wrote, "The most convincing explanation of the origin of the term 'Miao' is that it represented an effort on the part of the Chinese to recreate the sound of the word (pronounced 'Mong' or 'Mu,' as the 'H' is unaspirated) used by members of the ethnic group to refer to themselves."
Despite its obscurity one thing about Hmong history was clear to J. Mottin, the author of "History of the Hmong." "Of their pre-history only one thing is certain, that is that the Miao were in China before the Chinese, for it is the latter themselves who indicate the presence of the Miao in the land, which they, the Chinese, were gradually infiltrating, and which was to become their own country, " Mottin wrote.
Between five and six thousand years ago, the Hmong people lived in today's Hebei province, said Professors Wu and Yang. Their leader at the time was the legendary Chiyou, and his people were known as the Jiuli tribes. The ancestors of the Han Chinese, ruled by leaders Huang Di and Yan Di, lived to the northwest of the Jiuli Kingdom. As Chinese population grew, they expanded southward into Hmong territory. A major war broke out between the two sides on the northwestern part of modern-day Beijing. Professors Wu and Yang cited that according to legends and folk songs, "the Hmong won nine battles but lost on the tenth."
After their defeat, the Hmong emigrated southward into the lower reaches of the Yellow River where they re-established a new kingdom approximately four thousand years ago. The San-Miao Kingdom and its people were led by Tao Tie and Huan Tuo. Unfortunately, history repeated itself; the Han Chinese expanded, encroaching and taking over on what had become Hmong land. In the ensuing war the San-Miao Kingdom was defeated and "largely exterminated" by Yu the Great at about 2200 B. C., wrote Jenks. The Hmong then became disintegrated and lived dispersely in China's south and southwest corners. "After San-Miao," Professor Wu said, "the Hmong people could never be united again, and be strong as a nation."
After the destruction of San-Miao, the Hmong continued to migrate southward into today's Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces. Much was talked about their living in the Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake areas, where the Chu Kingdom during the Eastern Zhou and Qin Dynasties encompassed. Many scholars, both Hmong and non-Hmong, argue that the state of Chu was a Hmong kingdom. If it was not Hmong, it certainly was not Chinese. Conrad Schirokauer, a published scholar of Chinese history, referred to the Chu state as a "semi-Chinese." Many researchers, including our Xiangtan professors, argue that the intact female corpse (died and buried during the Chu Kingdom and excavated from a highly elaborate tomb in 1972 in Changsa, Hunan) was Hmong because the drawings on her caskets and on the piece of silk covering her coffin are designs unique to the Hmong.
Based on the seal unearthed, this female corpse was named Xin Zhui, the wife of Li Cang who was the Marquis of Dai. Even after more than two thousand years, her body was well preserved and protected from decay by a set of four coffins carefully arranged inside one another.
Along with her body, over 1,400 cultural and funerary objects were buried inside the tomb, ranging from agricultural seeds, combs, mittens, stockings, shoes, gowns, wooden dolls, food and wine containers to zither-like stringed and reed-pipe instruments.
On top of the innermost coffin, there laid a splendid and exquisite T-shaped painting on silk. The painting details a person's three souls - one which remains to watch over the body, the second which goes in search of the ancestors and the third which just wanders. This belief in three separate souls and their duties upon death exist today. Having published a paper on this unique piece of painting, Professor Yang believes this old pictorial lends even greater evidence to the claim that the corpse and the Chu Kingdom could be Hmong. He argued that except for a few minor illustrations on the top left, the rest of the intricate illustrations coincided with legends and folk stories of the Hmong. Pointing to the wooden dolls, a tour guide of the museum mentioned that many visiting scholars argue that they are dressed in Hmong-style clothing.
Throughout history, if the Hmong people found any kind of peace, it never lasted long. They have been forced to emigrate from northeastern China into the country's southwestern corner. During the Qing Dynasty, several major wars further pushed hundreds of thousands of Hmong into Southeast Asian countries of Vietnam, Laos, Burma and Thailand.
The first major war during the Qing Dynasty erupted in 1735 in southeastern Guizhou province as a result of Chinese southward expansion and forced assimilation. Eight counties and 1,224 villages were said to be involved in this war. When the Hmong were suppressed in 1738, Professor Wu said 17,670 Hmong had been killed in combat, 11,130 were captured and executed and another 13,600 were forced into slavery. Half of the Hmong population were affected by the war.
The second war (1795-1806) was started in three provinces - southeast of Sichuan, east of Guizhou and west of Hunan. The Hmong were led by Ba-yue Wu, Liu-deng Shi, San-bao Shi and Tian-ban Shi. As in the past, this war was launched to resist the Chinese and the Qing government from taking over their land. The popular slogan at the time was, "Get back our fields. Drive the Han people and he Manchus out off our fields."
The last war was the biggest and longest of the three. As a result of the Taiping Rebellion, the Qing government demanded more taxes and labor from the Hmong. The Hmong, led by Xiu-mei Zhang and other leaders, revolted in southeastern Guizhou in 1854 and fought until 1873. In excess of one million people were involved in this war, which spread to cover hundreds of cities and counties. According to Professor Wu, only 30 percent of the Hmong survived the war. Seventy percent of them were either killed or ran away. Zhang, a native of Taijiang, Guizhou, was captured and taken to Changsa, Hunan where his life r ended under cruel tortures.
While a major portion of the Hmong emigrated to Southeast Asia during periods of the last two wars, hundreds of thousands of Hmong were left behind in China. According to the 1990 Chinese census, there are still 7,398,035 Hmong scattered in Chinas southwestern provinces - approximately 3,686,900 in Guizhou province; 1,557,073 in Hunan; 896,712 in Yunnan, 535,923 in Sichuan, 425,137 in Guangxi, 200,702 in Hupei, 52,044 in Hainan Island; and 43,544 in other provinces.
Because of the many years of warfare and assimilation, the Hmong in China have been divided into five main branches - Hong (Red), Hei (Black), Bai (White), Hua (Flowery) and Qing (Green) Hmong. They have also been separated linguistically into three main dialects - eastern, central and western. One group cannot understand the other two's dialects. Fortunately, all three groups pay respect to the same ancestry, the legendary Chiyou. Legends, folk tales and folk songs are similar in many ways between the three groups. All of the different groups of the Hmong - in and out of China-have continued to practice the so-called showing the way or qhuab ke in Hmong, a funeral song sung to the deceased. Qhuab ke precisely guides the deceased individuals soul from his present location to the original homeland of his ancestors, tracing backward the migration route from village to village, city to city northeast towards the Beijing area. Besides written materials, Hmong scholars have recently used qhuab ke as a major source to help them relearn and interpret Hmong history.
Although their culture and tradition are similar in many ways, a few major cultural practices are different between those in China and those outside China. Unlike the Hmong in and from Southeast Asia, those in China standardize how a person is called. According to our professors and the Hmong-Chinese community, the Hmong traditionally call each other and oneself by the given name first, followed by the family or last name. Unless one is talking to Chinese people (who go by last name followed by first name), or putting down his name on official document, he would never go by the family name first. In short, inside the Hmong-Chinese community, one is always called by the given name first. On the contrary, a minority but growing percentage of Hmong from Southeast Asia prefer to be called by their last name first,
Moreover, we also learned that the Hmong in China don't toss cloth balls during new year's celebration. Our professors concluded that the Hmong in and from Southeast Asia may have adopted this practice from the Zhuang or other nationalities in southwest China before entering Southeast Asia.
Our field research to Hmong villages in southwest China was an informative but a physically demanding one. Roads ended in the cities or nearby villages so we walked for miles crossing over mountains and valleys before reaching Hmong villages. There, we were shock to see how they managed to survive living in poverty in mountainous locales.
Experiencing only the natural spring water in Laos and filtered tap water from the kitchen sink in the United States, I could not believe how terrible their drinking water was. The water color wasn't clear but dark yellow. Young boys fished in it. Pigs and chickens are within its vicinity. People and animals take turn drinking from the same pond. That's how it is in many Hmong villages in the remote countrysides. They purify their water by placing limestone (zeb qaub in Hmong) into the bucket of water to separate the dirt from the water.
Educational opportunities are lacking in Hmong villages. For as long as it has come into existence, Hei Shan village, for example, has not produced a single junior high graduate. High school and college education are beyond their dreams. Most of these children drop out before or after fourth grade for various reasons ranging from financial inability to lack incentives.
Economically, the Hmong-Chinese remain undeveloped and backward. This is especially true for those in Yunnan province. Shortage of land for cultivation is their initial problem. Having no money to buy fertilizer to enrich the exhausted soil is another. According to village leaders, they are always hungry six months of every year. They said that if they have fertilizer, they would be in a much better condition.
The barren surroundings where most Hmong live accelerated our concern for their well-being. Most of them seem to give up on everything, even their dreams. A few have just began to develop and enrich Hmong society. A one-year-old committee of Hmong scholars and leaders was organized and is in the process of trying to erect a statue of Chiyou in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou. If this happens, this single statue may become a symbol of national pride, identity, unity and commonality for the Hmong people, regardless of where we're all living on the surface of this world.
Copyright 1997, INK: Hmong Magazine.
INK, Vol 1, No 1, Prmier Issue, Spring 1997. Reproduced here with the kind permission from INK.
Feb 3 2012, 04:47 PM
Joined: 3-February 12
A brilliant 9th grader came residence distraught some day. This kid's mommy asked, "What's inappropriate? inches The actual children's answer had been frustrating. "I want to be home trained. College isn't entertaining think itís great had been. Lecturers usually are consequently mean. inch The actual concerned mama written for you to the woman youngster, a youngster exactly who instructors raved with regards to, a child who is actually a head, a superb friend, along with a constructive, solid style. "Mom, it isn't really precisely what this lecturers state or maybe do to my opinion, it is that they react in the direction of another kids, your children they don't including, or those whom do not do this effectively throughout institution. Most of these lecturers, Mommy, are said to be purpose versions. I'd personally in no way complete the things these people accomplish to be able to various other children! But, nowadays, the actual instructor do shout in me facing every person mainly because various other kids in my team have been conversing. They said I would get manufactured these individuals quit talking. He or she enquired everyone basically had been too afraid for making all of them cease! He then said that we must be a role design. Mum, it can be therefore hypocritical. I am unable to help make youngsters halt talking. I am just tired of that. With the means these educators take care of young children, My partner and i never possibly wish to go to institution nowadays. "
This case had been growing more than a period of ninety days. Mom finally made a decision to take action along with speak to the woman's kid's professors. What your lover observed had been the people regarding instructors who got simply no undeniable fact that they were harming children, little ones which they thought the earth regarding, kids that they trulycared. Many lecturers necessarily mean very well if they answer aggravations, discontentment, as well as difficulties inside the class room. Excellent intentions, nevertheless, tend not to generally replace the actual soreness brought on by hurtful teacher behaviours.
Currently, much of your culture allows some of the most hurtful dialect because appropriate wit. Sarcasm has grown to be commonplace in your own home, school room, in addition to mass media. Significantly mass media humor can be sardonic. However, in which incredibly sarcasm can be what heats up a uncaring group inside the classroom. Many little ones feel it's amusing. A number of youngsters are usually indifferent. Several kids can not see the innuendo and cultural alerts behind its utilize. A number of little ones misunderstand the item, and a few children usually are profoundly hurt by it. How can any college class educator determine what on earth is 'safe sarcasm' and also what exactly is not? So how exactly does some sort of class tutor choose what exactly is optimistic in addition to useful effect from the class room as well as precisely what is certainly not? Can there be previously room for professors to be unkind in their approach to the pupils? You will discover those that would certainly warrant this, on the other hand, individuals exact same lecturers pay out an expense outside of what exactly they will often realize. In which selling price is the childrens sense regarding well-being, wholeness, along with their particular probable accomplishment. Generally, as an alternative to a lot more compliant individuals, they will acquire students that lash out.
Painful behaviors as well as dialect inside the classroom might be regarded demi lovato. Think about precisely what behaviors we all will not recognize by learners in the direction of other students in this classrooms. Complete we all, educators, previously make use of those exact same actions toward individuals inside the brand associated with control, class room operations, as well as determination?
Just what instructor behaviors are usually hurtful or even actually violence? Take place we all know in the event that we have been employing these kinds of conduct? One method to look at these difficult questions is to reveal. We could consult our self:
Carry out all of us previously perform the following behaviors?
Produce entertaining of any youngster (kidding around kids with regards to moving slowly, certainly not staying by using it, actions we uncover uncomfortable or even strange, etc.)
Disregard the discomfort as well as unhappiness of an youngster
Become verbally raw in this words or even strengthen: Yelling out purchases to complete one thing... "Come right here! inch "You stay at this time there! " in a very requesting or disdainful approach, getting in touch with youngsters losers, informing these people they are SpEd so they usually are not clever enough to learn "that" e-book, for example.
Matter vindictive or maybe countertop profitable hazards: "If you never finish work, you may not get lunch. inches This change concerning painful provocations and discipline is self-control demonstrates to correct behavior and is also thought out ahead of time with the kid's perception of the outcomes.
Always be inappropriate along with intimacy: Keeping as well as hugging in a fashion that will be improper, or maybe getting.
Ignore a kid.
End up being brusque as well as limited in time offered to hear children
Consistently talk about exactly what the child has been doing wrong
Force a kid coupled literally; manhandling or maybe yanking to produce the child move.
Grab a thing beyond some sort of little one's fingers
Believe disdainfully of a little one along with letting it present
Yell in a out of hand manner with a baby
Cross punch the actual line in between exhibiting appropriate rage in a very respectful means and getting disrespectful to some youngster to indicate our frustration.
Notify children they performed something poor whenever what that they would has not been talk or maybe praca dla modelek malicious.
Presume your most detrimental in what a youngster simply just does without spending some time to understand the particular child's reasoning along with enthusiasm.
Definitely not act whenever a baby will be mistreating another little one.
Certainly not react whenever a grown-up will be mistreating a different kid (obtaining the easiest way and time period just isn't quick)
Make use of hurtful sarcasm fond of a student in order to self-discipline.
Talk negatively with regards to children inside the teacher's room, or even more serious, inside halls as well as class when in front of youngsters.
On purpose humiliate youngsters before his or her mates.
Other sorts of examples of painful conduct in which young children have received at the hands of the teachers usually are:
Any kid's binder is usually unkempt hence the teacher contains the item in place for example for the category and also why don't we each of the material drop on top of the bottom for the reason that instructor berates the child facing anyone.
Praising the kids exactly who got A's in a fashion that embarrasses them and creates these locates regarding envy or maybe reasons other folks in the type to experience put down.
Focusing on little ones that are tagged 'trouble makers'. Certainly not slicing these people just about any slack, whilst simultaneously, favoring kids who definitely are widely used, athletic, or maybe wise. Permitting those youngsters to flee deserved willpower how the focused young children have to put up with.
Exhibiting on your habits along with language to handle difficulty problems can be in no way uncomplicated. It's unlikely that any of us is perfect. Many of us neglect to match our personal requirements sometimes. The purpose of reflection is not to get each of our "failures" and also berate yourself for them, but instead to view where by most of us might be able to improve along with help yourself and also each of our learners to grow.
2 basic methods to habits administration that make a huge difference within the setting your sessions:
Very first: Use optimistic words any time talking to youngsters. Certainly not utilize sarcasm as well as dangerous critique.
Second: Employ respected self-discipline. Your respected method is usually firm, but consists of learners in making class regulations offering the rationale behind those people guidelines.
We have been each of our students' purpose products. You should are the greatest purpose product we can become! We can whenever we take the time to mirror, alter what on earth is not working or even might know about can't stand, and develop on the practical knowledge.
|Lo-Fi Version||Time is now: 19th May 2013 - 10:18 AM|