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Newest Study Questioning/Debunking(?) the Out of Taiwan hypothesis, Ancient Voyaging and Polynesian Origins
trismegistos
post Mar 2 2011, 08:47 AM
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Before anything else, pls be referred to the old thread for more interesting points and links... http://www.asiafinest.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=223334
http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-92...rge_figure=true
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The original paper:
http://download.cell.com/AJHG/pdf/PIIS0002929711000103.pdf

Ancient Voyaging and Polynesian Origins

Pedro Soares1, 2, Teresa Rito1, 3, 4, Jean Trejaut5, Maru Mormina1, 6, Catherine Hill1, Emma Tinkler-Hundal1, Michelle Braid1, Douglas J. Clarke3, Jun-Hun Loo5, Noel Thomson7, Tim Denham8, Mark Donohue9, Vincent Macaulay7, Marie Lin5, 10, Stephen Oppenheimer11 and Martin B. Richards1,

In this paper,
ISEA: includes Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysian Borneo. Taiwan-excluded

Near Oceania (the western Pacific): includes New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Bougainville, and the Solomon Islands; and

Remote Oceania includes Island Melanesia southeast of the Solomons (including Vanuatu and Fiji), Polynesia, and Micronesia

---------------------------------

Some highlights:

Haplogroup B4a1a, although almost exclusively associated with speakers of Austronesian languages, cannot have dispersed from Taiwan into ISEA and the Pacific 3–4 ka. The 95% confidence limits on the ages of B4a1a1 and B4a1a1a from complete mtDNAs explicitly reject this explanation for their distribution (Table 1). Because B4a1a, along with some haplogroup Q lineages—of likely New Guinean origin, which occur in Polynesia at a rate of <5%[10] and [12]—make up almost all of the mtDNAs found in Polynesia, these results exclude any significant direct Taiwanese contribution from 4 ka to the maternal ancestry of Polynesians. (We cannot entirely rule out an early Holocene dispersal from Taiwan >8 ka,23 but such a dispersal would not match the archaeologically dated “out of Taiwan” model.)

In ruling out both a simple Taiwanese and a Wallacean origin, these results also contradict an influential “slow boat” model for Polynesian origins that suggests an ancestry in Taiwan at 4 ka for the maternal line of descent while positing a large Near Oceanic origin for the male side, based on Y chromosome evidence.[10], [47], [48] and [49] Our results suggest instead that the mtDNA subclade B4a1a and the major Pacific Y chromosome haplogroup C2 might be distributed in a rather similar way, with a proximally Near Oceanic, but ultimately Southeast Asian, ancestry. Several widely distributed paternal subclades may have a Taiwanese ancestry, but they only occur in Oceania at low frequencies.[49] and [50] Available autosomal microsatellite diversity, furthermore, suggests that Polynesian patterns show a partly East Asian and partly Near Oceanic ancestry at low resolution but are distinct from both at higher resolution.[51] and [52] This is also compatible with our model of a largely ancient Asian ancestry for Polynesian origins, with an early Holocene incubation period in ISEA and then in Near Oceania. The male and female lines of descent may therefore not have such radically contrasting histories as some have proposed.[10] and [53]

The spread of B4a1a1a back through New Guinea into ISEA, which most likely took place 4–5 ka, suggests instead that models based on the idea of a “voyaging corridor,”[5] and [7] facilitating exchange between ISEA and Near Oceania, may provide a more plausible backdrop to the settlement of the Remote Pacific. The HVS-I database provides further indications of small-scale bidirectional movements across this region. E1b, in particular, might plausibly have been carried by small numbers of Austronesian-speaking voyagers who integrated with coastal-dwelling B4a1a1 groups in the Bismarcks (where it is present at 5%), perhaps stimulating the rise and spread of the Lapita culture and the dispersal of the Oceanic languages.38 Other lineages from Southeast Asia are also found at low frequencies in Near Oceania, and still others are candidates for dispersal from Taiwan into eastern Indonesia via the Philippines, but they did not reach Oceania.25 Some of these may have also been involved in the transmission of Austronesian culture and languages, although they evidently had no demic role in the founding of Polynesia.

Thus, although our results rule out any substantial maternal ancestry in Taiwan for Polynesians, they do not preclude an Austronesian linguistic dispersal from Taiwan to Oceania 3–4 ka,54 mediated by social networks rather than directly by people of Taiwanese ancestry but perhaps involving small numbers of migrants at various times.9 The mtDNA patterns point to the possibility of a staged series of dispersals of small numbers of Austronesian speakers, each followed by a period of extensive acculturation and language shift.55

Overall, though, the mtDNA evidence highlights a deeper and more complex history of two-way maritime interaction between ISEA and Near Oceania than is evident from most previous accounts.54 Archaeological and linguistic evidence for maritime interaction between ISEA and Near Oceania during the early and mid-Holocene is strengthening, however,[9] and [56] and it has been suggested that contacts might have been facilitated by sea-level rises and improvements in conditions on the north coast of New Guinea.4 Early to mid-Holocene social networks between New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago are marked by the spread of stone mortars and pestles, obsidian, and stemmed obsidian tools from 8 ka57 until before or alongside the advent of Lapita pottery in the Bismarcks at 3.5 ka.6 The absence of early Lapita pottery on New Guinea suggests major disruptions to preexisting exchange networks within Near Oceania before or at 3.5 ka, with increasing social isolation of some areas and increasing interaction between others.

There is also emerging evidence from both archaeology and archaeobotany for the spread of domesticates during the mid-Holocene, before the presumed advent of Austronesian dominance from 4 ka. Molecular analyses suggest that bananas,58 sago,59 greater yam,60 and sugarcane61 all underwent early domestication in the New Guinea region. These cultivars, and associated cultivation practices, diffused westward into ISEA, where the plants and linguistic terms for them were adopted by Proto-Malayo-Polynesian speakers upon their arrival 4 ka[9], [54] and [62]. The vegetative cultivation of these plants evidently occurred within ISEA before any Taiwanese influences became significant.

This work suggests, therefore, a convergence of archaeological and genetic evidence, as well as concordance between different lines of genetic evidence. Our results imply an early to mid-Holocene Near Oceanic ancestry for the Polynesian peoples, likely fertilized by small numbers of socially dominant Austronesian-speaking voyagers from ISEA in the Lapita formative period, 3.5 ka. Our work can therefore also pave the way for new accounts of the spread of Austronesian languages.

This post has been edited by trismegistos: Sep 24 2011, 08:27 AM
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apac45
post Mar 16 2011, 11:05 PM
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Animals adapted for cold weather all have heavy fur, down or fat. Look at polar bears, musk ox, yaks, etc. ettc. Hair insulates the body.
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filipinoy
post Mar 17 2011, 02:15 AM
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^berbers are considered mostly caucasoid? same origins as europeans.. so it matters where they originally came from, depends how long they've lived in the desert since north africa wasnt always entirely a desert(straight hair developed 65k bp outside of africa) & how extreme the climate was..

QUOTE (apac45 @ Mar 16 2011, 09:05 PM) *
Animals adapted for cold weather all have heavy fur, down or fat. Look at polar bears, musk ox, yaks, etc. ettc. Hair insulates the body.

not for humans who are already wearing those animals' fur... moisture on the human hair like the beard like i said freezes.. native americans from canada to brazil are also descendants of the similar ice age people & they too are usually not hairy also

This post has been edited by filipinoy: Mar 17 2011, 02:25 AM
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Prau123
post Mar 18 2011, 02:19 AM
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QUOTE (filipinoy @ Mar 17 2011, 02:15 AM) *
^berbers are considered mostly caucasoid? same origins as europeans.. so it matters where they originally came from, depends how long they've lived in the desert since north africa wasnt always entirely a desert(straight hair developed 65k bp outside of africa) & how extreme the climate was..


not for humans who are already wearing those animals' fur... moisture on the human hair like the beard like i said freezes.. native americans from canada to brazil are also descendants of the similar ice age people & they too are usually not hairy also


Okay Berbers may not be the best example. Straight hair is likely a cold climate adaptation, and the Berbers could be a relatively recent back-migration from Europe or north of the Caucusus, or at least mixed with groups from there, since many Middle Easterners actually have wooly or wavy hair.

I agree with you. Excessive facial hair and body hair is meant for a semi-cold climate, but not too cold, as it tends to freeze. As you mentioned, the Inuits, and even some of the Northern Europeans do not have much facial or body hair as compared to southern Europeans or Middle Easterners.

Just a little more tidbit information: Caucasoids have never really broken pass the Arctic line until a few centuries ago (correct me if I'm wrong). In fact, the Saami and the Finns, both of whom are Asian, arrived in the Arctic regions of Scandinavia/Fennoskandia before any Caucasoids. The Caucasoids could not simply survive in those areas, or areas where there were glaciers. The same with northern Russia, and its aboriginal Asian populations. The Inuits and the Dorset Culture, both of whom are Asian, would do the same thing in the Arctic regions of North America, whereas the Vikings struggled to survive in Arctic (and sub-Arctic) Greenland, and would eventually leave in one to two centuries. It seems that the Asian biological design for less hair was better suited for the Arctic climate. This begs the question: Is less hair an adaptation to an Arctic climate? Does that also mean that we Asians descend from a population from an Arctic climate, perhaps somewhere in Siberia? Or did Mongoloids/Proto-Mongoloids lose their hair prior to arriving to any Arctic climate? Did Proto-Mongoloids even have hair to begin with? We could also descend from an Australoid group that lost their hair.

This post has been edited by Prau123: Mar 18 2011, 02:27 AM
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Posts in this topic
- trismegistos   Newest Study Questioning/Debunking(?) the Out of Taiwan hypothesis   Mar 2 2011, 08:47 AM
- - filipinoy   ^true agriculture already developed independently ...   Mar 2 2011, 09:17 AM
|- - trismegistos   QUOTE (filipinoy @ Mar 2 2011, 09:17 AM) ...   Mar 2 2011, 08:06 PM
|- - filipinoy   QUOTE (trismegistos @ Mar 2 2011, 06:06 P...   Mar 4 2011, 10:26 AM
|- - trismegistos   QUOTE (filipinoy @ Mar 4 2011, 10:26 AM) ...   Mar 4 2011, 05:19 PM
|- - Prau123   QUOTE (trismegistos @ Mar 4 2011, 06:19 P...   Mar 5 2011, 04:44 AM
|- - trismegistos   QUOTE (Prau123 @ Mar 5 2011, 04:44 AM) Ba...   Mar 5 2011, 06:45 PM
- - filipinoy   ^^lol maybe only because china is a big country (t...   Mar 5 2011, 07:46 AM
- - Prau123   QUOTE (filipinoy @ Mar 5 2011, 07:46 AM) ...   Mar 6 2011, 02:10 AM
|- - trismegistos   In addition, there were several catastrophic event...   Mar 6 2011, 08:52 AM
|- - Prau123   QUOTE (trismegistos @ Mar 6 2011, 09:52 A...   Mar 7 2011, 01:50 AM
- - austronesian0sailor   I see what you're trying say with all these th...   Mar 7 2011, 12:41 PM
|- - apac45   dude, dude, dude. lot of central, east and weste...   Mar 10 2011, 05:51 PM
|- - martin_nuke   QUOTE (apac45 @ Mar 10 2011, 06:51 PM) du...   Mar 10 2011, 09:55 PM
|- - austronesian0sailor   QUOTE (apac45 @ Mar 10 2011, 05:51 PM) du...   Mar 11 2011, 01:40 AM
|- - Prau123   QUOTE (austronesian0sailor @ Mar 11 2011, 01...   Mar 16 2011, 11:30 PM
- - filipinoy   QUOTE (Prau123 @ Mar 6 2011, 12:10 AM) Mo...   Mar 16 2011, 02:46 PM
- - martin_nuke   QUOTE (filipinoy @ Mar 16 2011, 02:46 PM)...   Mar 16 2011, 05:21 PM
- - filipinoy   ^just the last ice age saudi arabia was cooler ...   Mar 16 2011, 08:02 PM
- - apac45   Animals adapted for cold weather all have heavy fu...   Mar 16 2011, 11:05 PM
|- - filipinoy   ^berbers are considered mostly caucasoid? same ori...   Mar 17 2011, 02:15 AM
|- - Prau123   QUOTE (filipinoy @ Mar 17 2011, 02:15 AM)...   Mar 18 2011, 02:19 AM
- - apac45   Fat is also insulation, but we see that really fat...   Mar 16 2011, 11:09 PM
- - apac45   Hair does not freeze skin freezes. In fact, hai...   Mar 19 2011, 10:40 AM
|- - filipinoy   QUOTE (apac45 @ Mar 19 2011, 08:40 AM) Ha...   Mar 19 2011, 11:47 AM
- - apac45   maybe you guys can go to alaska and tell everyone ...   Mar 19 2011, 10:51 AM
- - Prau123   I may have been too quick to jump to the conclusio...   Mar 21 2011, 09:33 PM
- - trismegistos   The mystery on how Southern Mongoloids evolved fro...   Mar 23 2011, 01:58 AM
- - apac45   thankss for showing a reasonable mind prau123. es...   Mar 23 2011, 11:04 AM
- - filipinoy   ^if your diet is already full of vitamin D... your...   Mar 23 2011, 01:16 PM
- - maharlikangpilipino   I don't know if this is of any help to your di...   May 4 2011, 06:55 PM
- - trismegistos   QUOTE (Prau123 @ Mar 18 2011, 02:19 AM) I...   Jul 1 2011, 12:29 PM


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