QUOTE (zaza9000 @ Jun 11 2009, 02:06 AM)
Although I dislike China's occupation of Manchuria, I agree with this posting - it sums up well China's strategic interests and plans in Manchuria.
By the way, how many Manchurians speak manchurian today? I read from China Daily that there are few hundred old women -manzu ren - speak Manchurian? Is that true?
First is Manchuria and Manchurians to vanish, next is Southern Mongolia and Southern Mongolians, then, Tibet and Eastern Turkestan. That is why Dalai Lama is mad about Chinese occupation of Tibet and migration of Han Chinese there. So sad! But I do not blame the Chinese. The Chinese are smart people, and they know that they must fight for these lands until their last drop of blood. On the other hand, Tibetans are naive and stupid - they think that their praying to their Buddhas will liberate their land from Chinese occupation. That will not happen. No nation should give up their piece of land without fight. In this sense, I really admire the Chinese people - they are smart.
China's presence in Manchuria is about as much of an "occupation" as Europe's presence in America, probably even less so since Han Chinese were let in by the previous, legal owners of the land (Manchus) themselves, whereas America was taken from the Red Indians by a combination of violence and deception.
Time for a history lesson. The reality is that at the end of the 19th century, there was a race between the regional powers (China, Russia, Japan) for possession of Manchuria, which up to that point had been sparsely populated - like America, Canada, and Australia before European colonization. Yes, there were native people, but by the standards of the 19th century, there was room for many more people, so it was up to the competition to see who would ultimately control it.
The Manchu rulers themselves, who by that point were sinicized and faced with increasing pressure from the Chinese revolutionaries for being ineffective rulers and losing Chinese land to foreign empires, decided as a last ditch strategic effort to migrate Han Chinese into Manchuria in the hopes that it'll allow them to keep a hold of it. The Manchus eventually capitulated anyways; the Japanese, meanwhile, were irritated to no ends that the League of Nations refused to allow them to colonize Manchuria, even though their own country was overflowing with population (this policy was for the League's own interests - they didn't want the Japanese to colonize China, which at the time was a much easier country to boss around and exploit than Japan). Through independent action by the Kwantung Army, the Japanese flaunted the League of Nations and conquered Manchuria anyways, swaying a number of Qing officers (including the "last emperor" Puyi, even though the Qing had already abdicated by that point) to their Manchukuo project, by which they intended to legitimize the creation of a new state into which they could then mass import Japanese as a ruling caste.
While the Japanese gained political and military control of Manchuria, the Han Chinese population, by that point, was already the vast majority in the area (something like 30 million). Most of this population consisted of farmers, which the Japanese treated like second-class citizens - kicking them off good land and offering it instead to new arrivals from Japan. All the while they did this, the Japanese were propagandizing that they were building in Manchuria a multi-ethnic nation where everyone was equal, which, as you might imagine, wasn't very effective among the Han Chinese because the reality on the ground was so different. At any case, the Japanese planned to import some five million or more Japanese into Manchuria within a few decades and began industrializing the area. Many Koreans (about a million or so) were also in Manchuria at this time; some were natives to the area, others were labor imported by the Japanese.
But Japan's vision of a new frontier for the Yamato race was not to be. Within two decades, Japan began losing the war. The Soviets, who resented the Japanese for defeating Russia earlier, took control of Manchuria and then handed it over to the Chinese Communists as a gesture of Communist brotherhood. Upon hearing of the Soviet advance, and knowing that they were hated by both the Russians and the Chinese, the Japanese migrant population (which I think at the time numbered around a million) fled Manchuria; in the chaos of their flight, they left many of their children behind. These children were later adopted by Chinese parents and many of them eventually went back to Japan once the Japanese instituted a program for repatriation. The Communists redistributed Manchurian land to loyal Chinese, and, making use of the industrial infrastructure the Japanese left behind, began using it as a base of operations from which to conquer the rest of China from the Nationalists. Koreans were allowed to stay partly as a gesture of goodwill towards the Korean Communists.
Throughout this period, the Manchus themselves tried their best to survive amidst the immense upheavals that were taking place in China. Having lost their status as a ruling caste, and fearing reprisal from the Han Chinese who suffered under them, many Manchus essentially abandoned their Manchu identity and faded into the Han Chinese population. Some of the elites went over to the Japanese side, but switched over again when the Chinese took over. There was a significant amount of intermarriage between Han and Manchu, to the extent that most Manchus could probably claim descent from both, and did so at their own convenience. For political reasons, they did not under the ROC (which was very anti-Manchu), and even not under the early PRC. Later, the PRC adopted the multi-ethnic China ideology and preferential policies for minorities; consequently, Manchus began reclaiming their ethnic status, but by that point many probably thought it wasn't worth it and either stayed as Han Chinese or claimed to be Manchu on paper but were practically Han Chinese. Today, Manchus make up about 10% of the population in Manchuria, or, perhaps more appropriately, Northeast China (Dongbei).
End of history lesson.