I'd invite anyone who has figures of death tolls other than Mongol invasions, too.
Mongol Conquests (Genghis Khan ruled 1206-27. Kublai Khan ruled 1260-94)
John Man, Genghis Khan : Life, Death, and Resurrection
The Jin (North China) recorded 7.6 million households in the early 13th Century. The first Mongol census in 1234 recorded 1.7 million housholds.Man interprets this as a population decline from 60 million to 10 million.
Man make a rough guess that 1.25M people were killed in Khwarezm in two years-- that's 25% of 5M original inhabitants.
Jack Weatherford, Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World (2004)
From the Washington Post's 4/4/4 review of Weatherford's Genghis Khan...:
"It's estimated that 15 million died in the Mongols' five-year invasion of central Asia."
Weatherford himself doubts most of these high numbers:
"[N]ot merely exaggerated or fanciful -- they were preposterous."
"[T]he numbers have no basis in reality."
Persian chronicles report 1,747,000 k. a Nishapur
1,600,000 killed at Herat in one estimate. An est. by Juzjani gives 2,400,000 k. at Herat.
"Later, more conservative scholars place the number of dead from Genghis Khan's invasion of central Asia at 15 million within five years [which] would require that each Mongol kill more than a hundred people." [Actually, in my opinion, that's a weak refutation. Killing a hundred people in five years is quite doable.]
Colin McEvedy, Atlas of World Population History (1978):
China Proper: In the text, he states that the population declined by 35 million as the Mongols reduced the country to subjugation during the 13th Century.In the Chart, the population drops from 115M to 85M between 1200 and 1300 CE.Iran: Charted population declined from 5.0M to 3.5M
Afghanistan: from 2.50M to 1.75M
Russia-in-Europe: 7.5M to 7M
This indicates a total population decline of some 37.75 million.
Alan McFarlane, The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap (2003):
Chinese population reduced to half in 50 years -- over 60 million people dying or failing to be replaced.
Komarova and Korotayev, "A Model of Pre-Industrial Demographic Cycle": Oddly, they skip right over the Mongol invasion ("The Sung cycle was interupted quite artificially by exogenous forces"), but Fig. 13 ends with the population of China at about 102M in 1125, while Fig. 14 begins with 55M in 1250, a decline of over 45M.
Edward Gibbon, Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire, vols.3 & 6
Zingis [Genghis]: conquest of Central Asia: 4,347,000 in 3 cities
Neisabour [Nishapur]: 1,747,000
Zingis: 160,000 Carizmians [Khwarizmi]
Baghdad: pyramid of 90,000 skulls
100,000 Chinese commit mass suicide to escape
100,000 lost in expedition against Japan
1.6M killed in Herat
160,000 of the Shah's troops killed at Bokhara
Britannica 11th ed. (1911) "Jenghiz Khan"
Battle against Khwarizm: 160,000 Khw. k.
The (London) Independent (18 Aug. 2001):
>3M died during the creation of Genghis's empire.
R.J. Rummel accuses the Mongols of 29,927,000 democides in the 13th through 15th Centuries.