"Research into the Origins of Austronesian Cultures
The Austronesian race consists of the peoples who speak what linguists call the Austronesian language group, which is the most different languages. The scope of this language family reaches from Easter Island off the western coast of South America in the east to Madagascar island off the eastern coast of Africa in the west, and from Taiwan in the north to New Zealand in the south, it encompasses a large number of islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans- and all belong to the same language family.
According to the research that numerous linguists have carried out over a long period of time, the Austronesian languages of Taiwan's aborigines contain many ancient linguistic elements and retain historic Austronesian pronunciations; a total of more than 20 sounds have been found in the island's aborigine languages that cannot be found in languages anywhere else on earth. Taiwan also has the densest grouping of Arstronesian languages, and the greatest number of different Austronesian languages, of any place on earth. In addition to the existing Atayal, Saisiat, Bunung, Zou, Rukai, Paiwan, Amis, Yami, Puyuma, and Sao tribes, these also included the languages of Pingpu tribes that have been assimilated into the Han Chinese residents and thus become extinct. In all, 19 different Taiwanese aborigine tribes spoke Austronesian languages; this proves the preeminent position of Taiwan's aborigines in the history of the development of the Austronesian peoples- and even the possibility that this island is the origin of the Austronesian race. For this reason, Taiwan is seen as the possible ancient home of the Austronesian peoples.
Over the past 4,000 years the Austronesian peoples of Taiwan have been subject to all kinds of external cultures and political control, and have developed a diversified cultural coloring; the western plains aborigines have been most completely assimilated into the Han Chinese culture, while the aborigines living along the east coast and in the mountains have preserved their Austronesian culture to a greater extent. In terms of lifestyles the Austronesian peoples are most skilled at marine navigation and fishing; but in Taiwan today, with the exception of the Yami and the Amis, most of the island's aborigines have given up fishing and taken to farming on the fertile western plains or have moved into the deep mountains to live with practically no relationship to the sea."
"Taiwan`s geographical position also determines its historical relations with the surrounding countries. Before the 17th century, Taiwan was initially inhabited by nine ethnic groups of Malay-Polynesian origin. While some claim that Chinese population on Taiwan may trace back to the third century (230 A. D., the Period of Three Kingdom), a recent study indicates that a reliable Chinese account on Taiwan appeared only in 1349. From the 16th century on, the Han people began arriving in the western part of Taiwan from the coastal area of southern China. They were fishermen, priates, criminals, or tax evaders. So were Japanese priates (Vertente, et al., 1991, 49) Most of them made no efforts to settle permanently, and the Ming government of the time never extended its rule on Taiwan (Vertente, et al., 1991, 34; See Figure 2A). Thus, when the Dutch from the Dutch East India Company in Batavia of Indonesia occupied and settled in the southern part of Taiwan (see Figure 3) in 1624 as the base of entrepot trade with Japan (Su, 1980, 57) and monopolizing its trade with China (Vertente, et al, 1991, 69), the Ming government did not protest nor interfere."
The Pekan Aboriginese are lingustically linked to the Philippine Ivatan people of the Batanes islands.. & ANTHROPOLOGICALLY LINKED TO THE MANOBO TRIBES OF MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES
MORE LUZON THAN HAINAN: TAIWAN BEFORE QING RULE:
THE TRIBES OF TAIWAN:
"Hainan, province, southeastern China, island in the South China Sea, south of Leizhou Bandao Peninsula. Hainan Strait, about 24 km (about 15 mi) wide, separates the peninsula from the island, which adjoins the Gulf of Tonkin on the east. Between its northern and southern extremities, Hainan has a length of about 257 km (about 160 mi) and an extreme width of about 145 km (about 90 mi). The southern half is traversed by a series of mountain chains, the highest of which has a maximum elevation of about 1829 m (about 6000 ft). The region has numerous extinct volcanoes, but many of the slopes and valleys are covered with dense tropical vegetation. The northern portion of the island, except for occasional mountainous outcroppings, consists of level plains. Hainan contains rich mineral deposits, including gold, tin, iron ore, lead, and silver, but the economy is predominantly agrarian. Among the leading crops are rice, rubber, coconuts, sugar, betel nuts, and pineapples. Large numbers of hogs, cattle, and ducks are raised.
People of Chinese origin constitute about two-thirds of the population of Hainan. Several aboriginal tribes, locally designated the Maiu and Lois, inhabit the more remote areas of the mountainous region. The Maiu tribes originated on the Chinese mainland; the Lois show marked physical similarities to the Igorot tribe of the Philippines and speak the same language."
"Li: aboriginal people of Hainan Island, off the southern coast of China. They live in the mountainous southern portion of the island and share with the Miao people the Hai-nan Li-Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Their many dialects are related to Tai and Malayo-Polynesian (or Austronesian). The Li number about 980,000."
"Native to the mountains of Hainan Island, the Li long had a history of rebellion against Chinese authority. In 1943 they rose against the Nationalist occupiers and were joined by local Communist guerillas and later by the Chinese Read army in the first large-scale collaboration of a minority during the civil war."
I think the Cham from vietnam who migrated to Hainan and became the (Cam Utsul ?) came long after the Li. This is what i gather after reading this:
HAINAN: Home to the Austronesian Cam Ustat:
"ChicoTsat, an Austronesian language of Hainan, is one of the clearest examples in the literature of a language restructuring under intense contact. Some two thousand years ago, traders speaking a Malayo-Chamic language set up trading posts on the coast of modern day Vietnam. Interaction and intermarriage with speakers of Bahnar [Mon-Khmer] led to the total restructuring of the language; under intense contact with Bahnar, it became Chamic, a language that differed strikingly from its Malayo-Chamic ancestor in phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax (constructions). For roughly a thousand years, this newly restructured Chamic language—the language of the Champa Federation—existed as an only moderately differentiated dialect continuum along the coastline of southern Vietnam, with a small trading post onHainan Island. The next major restructuring occurred after the northern capital fell to the Vietnamese in 982. This event led the Northern Cham to split into two groups: the bulk of the merchant class (including many Muslims—Huihui, in Chinese) fled to Hainan becoming the Utsat (etymologically, u `people classifier` + Tsat, *cam ‘Cham’; note that, a thousand years ago, all Chamic speakers were more than likely called Chams),while the bulk of the non-merchant class fled to south and, in many cases, inland, becoming the Northern Roglai (etymologically, ra `people`+ glai `forest`). It is worth noting that the Northern Roglai are the Chamic group reputed to have the royal treasures from the northern capital. The arrival of the Northern Cham traders on Hainan—an event noted in the Chinese Dynastic records—led to another complete restructuring of the language, this time under the influence of the monosyllabic and tonal Hlai languages (Tai-Kadai), the monosyllabic and tonal Min dialects of Chinese, and, more recently, under the quite intense influence of Mandarin. [The final restructuring of Tsat phonology takes place after their arrival on Hainan and had come into more intense contact both with Hlai speakers and with Min speakers, that is, sometime after 982.]"
"The Restructuring of Tsat under Intense Contact” Graham Thurgood and Fengxiang "Frank" LiCalifornia State University."
HERE IS A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT THE MALAY ETHNICITY IS. WE ARE NOT CONFINED TO ONE COUNTRY. WE ARE SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE ISLANDS AND PARTS OF THE CONTINENTS OF THE INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS AS A RESULT OF OUR MALAY ANCESTOR'S ANCIENT SEA-FARING LIFESTYLES FROM THE ULTIMATE HOMELAND OF TAIWAN BEGINNING AROUND 6,000 YEARS AGO, BUT STILL TODAY WE HAVE PRESERVED OUR AUSTRONESIAN CULTURE AND LANGUAGE AND MALAY ETHNICTY, ALL OF WHICH HAVE MERELY BEEN INFLUECED BY FOREIGN CONTACT TO ANY GIVEN ISLAND IN THE PACIFIC OR INDIAN OCEANS
FILIPINOS, INDONESIANS, MALAYSIANS, MADAGASCAR PEOPLES ARE ACTUALLY PART OF THE "MALAY ETHNICITY"
FILIPINO, INDONEISAN, MALAYSIAN, MADAGASCAR ARE MERELY NATIONAL IDENTITIES.
JUST LIKE THE CHINESE OF TAIWAN ARE ACTUALLY "HAN CHINESE ETHNICTY" BUT THEIR DESIRE IS TO KEEP THIS "TAIWANESE" NATIONAL IDENTITY.
THE MALAY ETHNICTY NEEDS TO SUPPORT THE MALAYS OF SUCH PLACES AS HAINAN AND TAIWAN WHO HAVE BECOME VICTIMS OF FOREIGN OVERPOPULATION, DISPLACEMENT, AND OPPRESSION IN THEIR OWN ANCESTRAL LANDS. TOGETHER WE CAN INSURE THE RIGHTS FOR EVERYONE, IF WE SUPPORT EACH OTHER AND STRENTHEN OUR VOICES. WE NEED TO LEARN ABOUT EACH OTHER'S HISTORIES BECAUSE THEIR HISTORIES ARE OUR HISTORIES. JUST MEREMBERS OF THE SAME FAMILY WHO HAVE MIGRATED AWAY FROM US. ET'S NOT FOREGET OUR BONDS!!
OTHER MALAYS IN THE WORLD WHO NEED HELP/VOICE/ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ARE:
1) CHAMS - VIETNAM
2) MERINA/BESTILEO - MADAGASCAR (AFRICAN ISLAND)
3) IGOROT/LUMAD - PHILIPPINES
AND HERE ARE SOME MALAY RELATED PEOPLE WHO PRACTICE THE NATIVE AUSTRONESAIN CULTURE OF THE MALAY:
1) NAGAS OF NAGALAND - INDIA/MYANMAR
2) SOME HILLTRIBES - CAMBODIA
3) MOKENS OF MERGUI/PHUKET ISLANDS - MYANMAR/THAILAND
4) HAWAIIAN/& OTHER POLYNESIANS (malay+papuans) - SOUTH PACIFIC ISLANDERS
LASTLY, ONCE AGAIN LETS NOT FOREGET ABOUT THE MOST ESSENTIAL :
THE TAIWAN ABORIGINALS, WHO ARE THE ULTIMATE HOMELAND FOR ALL MALAY AND OUR BIRTHPLACE OF OUR NATIVE AUSTRONESIAN CULTURE AND LANGUAGE;
IF YOU DO NOTHING BUT CHOOSE TO READ ABOUT THESE TRIBES ABOVE, AT LEAST HELP THE TAIWAN ABORIGINALS WHO ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT IN PREVERING THE NATIVE AUSTRONESIAN CULTURE AND HERITAGE OF THE MALAY ETHNICITY.
HERE IS A GREAT WEBSITE TO EXPLORE THE HISTORY AND WAYS TO SUPPORT THE TAIWAN ABORIGINALS:
& PS: AND REMEBER TO SPREAD THE WORD!!!! DISTRIBUTE THIS INFORMATION AND THOSE 2 SITES TO AS MANY MALAY BROTHERS AS YOU CAN OR ANYONE WHO IS WILLING TO ASSIST THIS GREAT CAUSE FOR OUR DISTANT BROTHER'S INDIGENOUS RIGHTS!!!!