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purnomor
Hi Mas Majapahitans!

What are the causes and outcomes of the Paregreg War of 1405?
Majapahitans
Paregreg war sign the slow but steady decline of Majapahit.....
Like many dynastic causes of destruction, internal intrique, struggle for succession of power, leads to the weakening of the empire.

The Paregreg war is the war between Wikramawardhana (Hayam Wuruk son in law, husband of crown princess, Kusumawardhani) vs Bhre Wirabumi (Hayam Wuruk's sons from concubine).
Bhre Wirabhumi claim that as male heir of Hayam Wuruk, he's deserve the throne better than his half sister. Although Majapahit are quite advance in succession law. First born of the queen are deserve to be the future emperor, regardless their gender..... So we can find both male and female monarch in Majapahit history.

When the separation and struggle for power over Majapahit throne built up, the envoy of China incidentally slaughtered because they are in the wrong place and in wrong time, being the guests of Bhre Wirabhumi in East Majapahit.

Bhre Wirabhumi is killed by Wikramawardhana and royal house of Majapahit united again. but the war really exhaust Majapahit's strength.
heartshapedbox
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Oct 18 2006, 10:54 PM) [snapback]2404762[/snapback]

The emperor Hayam Wuruk was dissapointed, he has lost his faith to this powerful Prime Minister. The opposed ministers has arroused the Emperor's suspicions that Gajah Mada now is too powerful, that he maybe gonna commit Coup d'etat and have Majapahit throne reserved for himself.
Howabout the emperor personal feeling....? It strongly suggested that the emperor is feeling guilty, sad, angered, and broken hearted after the tragic death of his future queen, Princess of Sunda.
So..., after the incident the emperor ordered Gajah Mada for early retirement (btw he's quite old at that time). But despite the suspicions, the history proved that Gajah Mada is a loyal servant for Majapahit's crown icon_neutral.gif He accepted emperor's offer and retired himself to Madakaripura, Probolinggo (Prabhalingga).
Btw it's strongly suggested that Gajah Mada adhere Siwa-Buddha, Javanese syncretism of Hinduism and Buddhism. Several years later, Gajah Mada vanished from his mountain retirement house. His wive try to search for him everywhere, but he just dissapeard. This event strongly add speculations for Gajah Mada's supranatural origin.... .
Me or Tom Cruise....? icon_redface.gif becanda yah....?


I read in the historic-fiction novel Gajah Mada by Langit Kresna Hariadi, that Gajah Mada probably was never married. There was no authentic-written proves that he was married. Maybe it becoz of his 'Hamukti Palapa' that he made when he became the Prime Minister of Majapahit. He wouldn't eat salty food, spicy food and other 'kenikmatan duniawi' until his dream came true. Sexual relationship could become on of his 'hamukti'
But I don't if when after he felt that he was already fulfilled his dream by uniting Nusantara, he got married.

PS: Btw, who is the handsome guy in your avatar? icon_redface.gif biggrin.gif
haqine
Interesting.
I'm always thought probably we have some literatures who had borne about our histories, however the experts still haven't find it.
Who knows one day we could find another literatures like La Galigo epic icon_smile.gif


QUOTE(heartshapedbox @ Nov 3 2006, 05:17 AM) [snapback]2446028[/snapback]

PS: Btw, who is the handsome guy in your avatar? icon_redface.gif biggrin.gif


^That's mas majapahit
You think so too icon_redface.gif biggrin.gif
furansizuka
That was he in his glorious day laugh.gif
sorry ya mas maja, sekali2 cewe godain cowo boleh, dong?! biggrin.gif
Majapahitans
QUOTE(heartshapedbox @ Nov 2 2006, 05:17 PM) [snapback]2446028[/snapback]

PS: Btw, who is the handsome guy in your avatar? icon_redface.gif biggrin.gif


QUOTE(haqine @ Nov 3 2006, 12:45 AM) [snapback]2447339[/snapback]

^That's mas majapahit
You think so too icon_redface.gif biggrin.gif


icon_redface.gif icon_redface.gif icon_redface.gif icon_redface.gif icon_redface.gif (speachless......)





QUOTE(furansizuka @ Nov 3 2006, 07:18 AM) [snapback]2448026[/snapback]

That was he in his glorious day


Iyah..., itu waktu gladiresik wisuda di koridor Balairung.

QUOTE(furansizuka @ Nov 3 2006, 07:18 AM) [snapback]2448026[/snapback]

sorry ya mas maja, sekali2 cewe godain cowo boleh, dong?!


Bole aja....,
I have nothing against women emancipation......
Aha..ha..ha.. biggrin.gif
Majapahitans
Majapahit empire teritorry during her height of Glory

IPB Image

I remember once Siri ask me weather I have map of Majapahit empire.
Well there you go.....

The map shows the area mentioned in the Book of Negarakertagama pupuh XIII dan XIV.

As you can see...., other than areas now known as Indonesia, Majapahit empire also ruled areas now known as Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, East Timor. (Also Sulu island of The Phillippines....).
Sirikittong
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 6 2006, 11:33 AM) [snapback]2457053[/snapback]

Majapahit empire teritorry during her height of Glory

IPB Image

I remember once Siri ask me weather I have map of Majapahit empire.
Well there you go.....

The map shows the area mentioned in the Book of Negarakertagama pupuh XIII dan XIV.

As you can see...., other than areas now known as Indonesia, Majapahit empire also ruled areas now known as Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. (Also Sulu island of The Phillippines....).


A very expansive maritime empire, indeed.

Thank You for sharing this with us, Maja.

Astromantic
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 6 2006, 05:33 PM) [snapback]2457053[/snapback]

Majapahit empire teritorry during her height of Glory

IPB Image

I remember once Siri ask me weather I have map of Majapahit empire.
Well there you go.....

The map shows the area mentioned in the Book of Negarakertagama pupuh XIII dan XIV.

As you can see...., other than areas now known as Indonesia, Majapahit empire also ruled areas now known as Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. (Also Sulu island of The Phillippines....).


Even to Papua!
Bhaskara
Whaa?Papua?I thought it was only a weak probability from a poem from an Empu?And I thought it has not been proven yet that the names mentioned in that poem is located Papua?
rasibiduk
^
ehm.. I don't believe Sunda is part of Majapahit empire back then. It was part of Gajah Mada's Palapa Oath but it never came about especially after Pasunda Bubat, I don't think.
Sunda would be conquered by the Javanese much later during the 2nd Mataram Kingdom.
Majapahitans
QUOTE(Sirikittong @ Nov 6 2006, 11:57 AM) [snapback]2457098[/snapback]

A very expansive maritime empire, indeed.

Thank You for sharing this with us, Maja.



You're welcome.... icon_smile.gif
Actually the book of Negarakertagama, also mention your country along with Champa and Kamboja: Syangkayodhyapura, means Ayutthaya of Siam..... biggrin.gif
Not as colony but as equals; Mitreka Satata.

Negarakertagama pupuh XV:

Nahan lwir ning decantara kacaya Cri-narapati
tahun tang Syangkayodhyapura kimutang Dharmmanagari
Maruta mwang ring Rajapura nguniweh Singhanagari
ri Campa Kambojanyat i Yawana mitreka satata.

Kunang tekang nusa Madhura tanami lwir parapuri
ir denyan tunggal mwang Yawadharani rakwekana dangu
samudrananggung-bhumi keta cakakalanya karengo
teweknya'n dadyapantara sasiki tatwanya tan adoh.


So the allied Mitreka Satata / neighbor countries are:
1. Syin (Syankayodhyapura): Siam (now Thailand)
2. Dharmanagara
3. Martaban (Burma)
4. Kalingga (Rajapura)
5. Singhanagari
6. Champa
7. Kamboja
8. Yawana (Annam)
Majapahitans
QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Nov 6 2006, 11:36 PM) [snapback]2458679[/snapback]

Whaa?Papua?I thought it was only a weak probability from a poem from an Empu?And I thought it has not been proven yet that the names mentioned in that poem is located Papua?


Wanin or sometimes mentioned Onin, is a large unexplored island lies east of Maloko (Ternate) and Ambwan (Ambon). Guess Majapahit fleet only reach Papua's Birdhead peninsula coast. They not find any significant settlements (city/village) so head back to Maloko and felt unecessary to explore Papua's wild interior.....
Majapahitans
QUOTE(rasibiduk @ Nov 7 2006, 02:58 AM) [snapback]2459177[/snapback]

^
ehm.. I don't believe Sunda is part of Majapahit empire back then. It was part of Gajah Mada's Palapa Oath but it never came about especially after Pasunda Bubat, I don't think.
Sunda would be conquered by the Javanese much later during the 2nd Mataram Kingdom.



You're right.......
Pintarnya.... biggthumpup.gif


The Name Sunda is mentioned in Gajah Mada's Palapa oath....

Sira Gajah Mada pepatih amungkubumi tan ayun amukita palapa, sira Gajah Mada : Lamun huwus kalah nusantara ingsun amukti palapa, lamun kalah ring Gurun, ring Seram, Tanjungpura, ring Haru, ring Pahang, Dompo, ring Bali, Sunda, Palembang, Tumasik, samana ingsun amukti palapa

But Negarakertagama didn't mention the name Sunda at all as Majapahit's territory in pupuh XIII and XIV
I guess the Empu do the right things, writing his Book base on fact .

At that map only shows Majapahit sphere's of influence.
Sunda never de facto within Majapahit's direct control.
But Majapahit conquest over Sunda is more like "symbolic".
The honorable death of Sri Baduga Maharaja of Sunda along with his family on Bubat square, north of Majapahit.
Majapahit never gain effective "real" control over western part of Java.
tangawizi
QUOTE(Sirikittong @ Oct 16 2006, 08:40 PM) [snapback]2398613[/snapback]

So since the Majapahit Empire was Hindu, were the Kings considered avatarsatris or were they considered God Kings (Deva raja) --or were they considered Thammaraja (selfless king). ?

I have read much into Sri Vijaya, but very little on Majapahit--but im impressed with the military conquest of Majapahit of srivijayan lands.

Do you think you can post a picture of the extreme military extent of majapahit, khun majapahitan?

Thanks, bro.

some biblio on the majapahit empire:

The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and the Philippines.

The Majapahit was the last of the great Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago. It was preceded by the Srivijayan kingdom, based in Palembang on the island of Sumatra.

The founder of the Majapahit Empire, Kertarajasa or Prince (Raden) Wijaya, was the son-in-law of Kertanegara, the last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, also based in Java. After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java altogether in 1290, the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a massive 1000 ship expedition which arrived off the coast of Java in 1293.

By that time, a rebel from Kediri, Jayakatwang had usurped and killed Kertanagara. The Majapahit founder, after a brief exile in the favor of the Regent (Bupati) Arya Wiraraja of Madura, allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once Jayakatwang was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw from the isle after he launched a surprise attack. The huge Mongol Army in confusion had to withdraw as they were in hostile land and it was the last time for the monsoon sea-wind to depart for home, otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a totally hostile island. Then, Wijaya ascended the throne as the first king of Majapahit on 1293 AD. In the Lands of Tarik he built a strong hold, and the capital was named Majapahit also, after the bitter (pahit) maja fruit, a sort of tree which grew in abundance in that area. His formal name was Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana. But the newborn empire was not without challenge. Some of his most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi set several rebellion against the king, but they all died in misery. It was suspected that mahapati Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of his opponents in order to gain the highest position in the government. But following the death of the last rebel Kuti, mahapati was captured and jailed for his tricks, and was sentenced to death. Wijaya himself died in 1309 AD.

He was succeeded by his son, Jayanegara, whose mother was a Malayu princess. Jayanegara was not a good king since he had shown some immoral behaviors such as willing to take his own step-sisters as his wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or "weak villain". Jayanegara was murdered by his surgeon on 1328 AD. He should have been succeeded by his stepmother, Rajapatni who retired from court to be come a nun in Buddhist monastery, Therefore she appointed her daughther, Tribhuwana as a queen of Majapahit to rule under her auspices.

During Tribhuwana’s rule Majapahit grew to be a great kingdom and famous on all the seas of the Archipelago and a broad. Tribhuwana ruled until the death of her mother in 1350 AD. Then her son Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne. (1)

Gajah Mada, an ambitious Majapahit prime minister and regent from 1331 to 1364, extended the empire's rule to include most of present day Indonesia. A few years after Gajah Madah's death, the Majapahit navy captured Palembang, putting an end to the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada's other renown general was Adityawarman, known for his conquest in Minangkabau.

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series


Prehistoric Malaysia (40,000-2,000 BCE)

Gangga Negara (2nd-11th century CE)

Langkasuka (2nd-14th century)

Pan Pan (3rd-5th century)

Srivijaya (3rd century -1400)

Majapahit Empire (1293-1500)

Kedah Sultanate (1136-present)

Malacca Sultanate (1402 - 1511)

Johor Sultanate (1528-current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
White Rajahs (1841-1946)

British Malaya (1874-1946)

Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1946)
Larut War (1861-1874)
Klang War (1867-1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895-1946)

Unfederated Malay States (19th century-1946)

Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909

Battle of Penang (1914)

North Borneo (1882-1963)

Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896-1900)

World War II (1941-1945)

Battle of Malaya (1941-42)

Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)

Battle of Singapore (1942)

Syburi (1942-1945)

Battle of North Borneo (1945)

Sandakan Death Marches (1945)

Malayan Union (1946-1948)

Federation of Malaya (1948-1963)

Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)

Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)

Independence Day (1957)

Federation of Malaysia (1963-present)

Operation Coldstore (1963)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962-1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963-1965)
May 13 Incident (1969)

New Economic Policy (1971-1990)

Operation Lalang (1987)

1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987-88)

Asian financial crisis (1997-98)

[edit this box]
Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area.

Majapahit’s Power reached its summit under the rule of King Hayam Wuruk. After Hayam Wuruk died in 1389 AD, Majapahit power began to decline with a civil war over succession that started in 1401 and went on for four years. The country was split up by fraternal conflitets. Hayam Wuruk had been succeeded by the crown princess Kusumawardhani, who had married a relative, Prince Wikramawardhana. Hayam Wuruk also had a son by his previous marriage, the crown prince Wirabhumi. He was jealous of his sister and his brother in-law, so he claimed rights to the throne. The tense relations between the two parties remained a smoldering fire during some. (1)

It grew into a big blaze at the beginning of the 15th century when a fraternal war called Paregreg was declared and lasted from 1403 to 1406 AD. At last Wikramawardhana won the war. Wirabhumi who fled at night, was caught and decapitated. Wikramawardhana ruled to 1492 AD. Wikramawardhana was succeeded by his daugther Suhita, who ruled from 1426 to 1447 AD. She was the second child of Wikramawarddhana by a concubine who was the daughter of Wirabhumi. (1)

In 1447, Suhita died and was succeeded by Kertawijaya, her brother. He ruled until 1451 AD. After Kertawijaya died, Bhre Pamotan become a king with formal name Rajasawardhana and ruled at Kahuripan. He died in 1453 AD. (1)

After that during three years Majapahit grew internally weaker and until 1456 AD, when Bhre Wengker, son of Kertawijaya, came to hold position as the ruler. He died at 1466 AD and succeeded by Singhawikramawardhana. In 1468 AD Kertabhumi suddenly attacked Bhre Wengker and promoted himself as king of Majapahit.

Singhawikramawardhana moved the Kingdom’s capital to Daha and continued his rule until he was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya at 1474 AD. In 1478 AD he defeated Kertabhumi and brought the divided Majapahit back into one Kingdom. Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 AD to 1519 AD with formal name Girindrawardhana. Nevertheless, Majapahit situation had decayed by long lasting family conflicts and enhanced by the growing-up of the north-coastal kingdoms in Java.

Majapahit found itself unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from 1478 to 1520, or - as recorded by the babad - c. 1400 Saka. After series of battle fought with the succeeding monarch of Demak Bintoro Sultanate, founded by Kertabumi's own son Raden Patah, the last remaining courtsmen of Majapahit was forced to withdraw eastward. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali at the end of Majapahit's existence, where they remained isolated until the late 19th and early 20th centuries when the Dutch colonials mounted a military expedition to take control of the island; however, the crown and the true seat of government moved to Demak under the leadership of Pengeran, later Sultan Fatah.

source: wikipedia



Man, I wish all of that could be put into a Tin-tin style comic book so it's easy to follow the storyline and put a face to these historical figures! If one gets published, please send me a PM and let me know! macacih! biggthumpup.gif
tangawizi
I've been reading the History of India and wondering how it all connects with the Hindu Buddhist influence in SE Asia. Maybe its possible to have some discussion about what was happening in India during this period of the Majapahit Kingdom?

I know from 1200 to 1500, Northern India was being islamicized by the Islamic sultanates in Delhi and later on in the Deccan. While that was happening, the Tamil kingdom of Chalukya Chola was coming to an end when their last king Rajendran III was defeated in 1279 by the Pandya king (Maravarman Kulasekara, the successor of Sundra Pandya).

Apart from the Pandyas whose empire was said to stretch from prehistoric times til around 1400AD, there were the Hoysala empire (1000-1346 AD) and Vijayanaga (1336 - 1600?AD)

Would really like to know more about the influence did India still had on the Majapahit kingdom, apart from the embarkation of Islamic trading influences in the area..
TonyL
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 7 2006, 08:10 AM) [snapback]2459519[/snapback]

You're right.......
Pintarnya.... biggthumpup.gif
The Name Sunda is mentioned in Gajah Mada's Palapa oath....

Sira Gajah Mada pepatih amungkubumi tan ayun amukita palapa, sira Gajah Mada : Lamun huwus kalah nusantara ingsun amukti palapa, lamun kalah ring Gurun, ring Seram, Tanjungpura, ring Haru, ring Pahang, Dompo, ring Bali, Sunda, Palembang, Tumasik, samana ingsun amukti palapa

But Negarakertagama didn't mention the name Sunda at all as Majapahit's territory in pupuh XIII and XIV
I guess the Empu do the right things, writing his Book base on fact .

At that map only shows Majapahit sphere's of influence.
Sunda never de facto within Majapahit's direct control.
But Majapahit conquest over Sunda is more like "symbolic".
The honorable dead of Sri Baduga Maharaja of Sunda along with his family on Bubat square, north of Majapahit. Majapahit never gain effective "real" control over western part of Java.


Sunda-Pajajaran is omitted in the 'big list' of Nagarakert. canto 13-14 but if i m not mistaken...the list is actually about controlled/tributary regions outside Java.

Now ...Pajajaran is geographically situated in the western part of Java and Prapanca already mentioned whole of Java was under control. So double textual reasons anyhow for not seeing it in that list
Majapahitans
QUOTE(TonyL @ Nov 7 2006, 10:53 AM) [snapback]2459838[/snapback]

Sunda-Pajajaran is omitted in the 'big list' of Nagarakert. canto 13-14 but if i m not mistaken...the list is actually about controlled/tributary regions outside Java.

Now ...Pajajaran is geographically situated in the western part of Java and Prapanca already mentioned whole of Java was under control. So double textual reasons anyhow for not seeing it in that list


I still strongly believe that the land of Sunda is not conquered effectively by Majapahit.
Only symbolic by the death of Sri Baduga Maharaja in Bubat.
The ports of Sunda... maybe within Majapahit's navy control.....
Well at least not interior parts of Sunda, near the "Dayeuh" (Sunda Capital) of Kawali Galuh and also Pakuwan.

As you know the sole survivor of Sunda's lineage is Dyah Pitaloka Citra Rashmi's younger brother, later known as Prabu Niskalawastukancana. (If I not mistaken).

During the Bubat massaccre the child prince is (intentionally) leaved behind in Kawali Surawisesa Palace to ensure the continuation of Sunda lineage, if something terrible happened to Sunda royal family (and it happen bawling.gif ), under the custody of Sri Baduga's brother, while the rest of Sunda Royal family go to Majapahit to escort the Princess....

Later this Sunda-Galuh King ascend to throne, and edict the law "Larangan Estri ti Luaran". Forbid Sundanese to married Javanese. In response of disasterous Bubat incident.
How come a vassal king be able to edicted this law if he's under direct control of Majapahit....? confused.gif

Later during Paregreg civil war of Majapahit, Sunda's border is flooded by Javanese Majapahit refugee.
The Sunda king himself break the law he has edicted before; married a Majapahit princess (probably Bhre Wirabhumi sister) fleeing from Majapahit civil war.
purnomor
QUOTE(tangawizi @ Nov 7 2006, 09:15 AM) [snapback]2459629[/snapback]

I've been reading the History of India and wondering how it all connects with the Hindu Buddhist influence in SE Asia. Maybe its possible to have some discussion about what was happening in India during this period of the Majapahit Kingdom?

I know from 1200 to 1500, Northern India was being islamicized by the Islamic sultanates in Delhi and later on in the Deccan. While that was happening, the Tamil kingdom of Chalukya Chola was coming to an end when their last king Rajendran III was defeated in 1279 by the Pandya king (Maravarman Kulasekara, the successor of Sundra Pandya).


The Tamil Chola king from South India, Rajendra Chola I, launched military expedition against Srivijaya in 1025, occupying Srivijayan colonies at Kedah (now Malaysia) and raiding Sumatra itself. These Chola attacks greatly weakened Srivijaya, allowing it to be conquered, first by neighbouring Malayu Kingdom based in Jambi, in 1088, then by Javanese Singhasari Kingdom (Pamalayu Expedition) in 1288, and in turn occupied by Javanese Majapahit kingdom in the 1300s.
lackor
lets focus on the new era lets get the birth rate in java down firstly
Bhaskara
Why are you insisting on Sunda's Independence from Majapahit?Is there even an actual prove that there was a thriving Sundanesse Kingdom back then?There's no candi or prasasti in West Java that could confirm that, right?

Also, wouldn't it be absurd for Majapahit to conquer nusantara but couldn't get her hand on a kingdom on the same island as her kotaraja, Java?

Anyway, it's interesting to know that the King's name is Sri Baduga, is that why the name of a museum in Bandung is Sri Baduga?What about his queen?Could I ask you to share your source?Thx in advance!
TonyL
QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Nov 8 2006, 04:56 AM) [snapback]2462483[/snapback]

.....Is there even an actual prove that there was a thriving Sundanesse Kingdom back then?There's no candi or prasasti in West Java that could confirm that, right?


There is contemporary prasasti near Bogor , for example one dated 1333 AD mentioning the founding of Pajajaran.
Bhaskara
Interesting!And where one could see this prasasti now?
rasibiduk
QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Nov 8 2006, 08:03 AM) [snapback]2462722[/snapback]

Interesting!And where one could see this prasasti now?


just go to Jl. Batutulis in Bogor and there you'll find prasasti from Pajajaran time sheltered in a little house, where a few years ago the then Religious minister wanted to dig the site because his dukun said that there was a colossal treasure underneath.
Majapahitans
QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Nov 8 2006, 04:56 AM) [snapback]2462483[/snapback]

Why are you insisting on Sunda's Independence from Majapahit?Is there even an actual prove that there was a thriving Sundanesse Kingdom back then?There's no candi or prasasti in West Java that could confirm that, right?

Also, wouldn't it be absurd for Majapahit to conquer nusantara but couldn't get her hand on a kingdom on the same island as her kotaraja, Java?

Anyway, it's interesting to know that the King's name is Sri Baduga, is that why the name of a museum in Bandung is Sri Baduga?What about his queen?Could I ask you to share your source?Thx in advance!



Me insisting on Sunda independence from Majapahit.....? confused.gif
Actually Sunda are defeated by Majapahit. The heroic death of Sunda King on Bubat square confirm it.
Yes..., King of Sunda is killed on Majapahit soil, but Majapahit never gain direct effective control over Sunda lands.... The capital of Sunda at that time, Surawisesa Palace, Kawali, (now near Ciamis) enjoy certain degree of independence.

Why Majapahit successfully conquer rest of Nusantara but can not conquer Sunda in military way...?
Although they're share same island.
Simple..., because....:
Next to Javanese, Sundanese has large population....
Sunda-Galuh is kingdom based on agriculture... so they estimated to have large population and able to support large army.
If you see ethnicity census in Indonesia, Sundanese is the second largest ethnic group after Javanese.

Sunda Galuh able to held large amount of manpower, and maintain large army.
Unlike Srivijaya that has their capital near large river, thus make it prone to Majapahit naval invasion, Sunda capital lies deep inland. Majapahit soldier will suffer guerillas warfare, also attack from army hidden in jungle, and large amount of them too.

The history of Pasundan consist of several era:

1. SALAKANAGARA (Capital at Teluk Lada Pandeglang (RAJATAPURA))
2. TARUMANAGARA (Capital at Chandrabhaga/Bekasi (TARUMANGARA) & Bogor (SUNDAPURA))
3. SUNDA GALUH (Capital at (PAKUAN); Kuningan (SAUNGGALAH); Ciamis (KAWALI))
4. PAJAJARAN (Capital at Bogor (PAKUAN))

The kingdom that involved in war with Majapahit (Pasunda Bubat massacre) is Sunda Galuh.

Oh yeah.. correction, the Sunda King that killed in Majapahit is Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana (1340 – 1357). Not Sri Baduga Maharaja. embarassedlaugh.gif

Although not as extensive as central and east Java, Sunda is thriving kingdom back then.
The history of Sunda is collected based on legends and folk stories (like the early states of Salakanagara), from Tarumanagara inscriptions found near Bogor, Jakarta and Bekasi, and many historic account also books of Cirebon Prince.

The interesting things is the name of Sunda kings are often correspon with Javanese counterparts, like Sanjaya of Ancient Mataram, the same as Sanjaya / Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama, king of Galuh.

Latest controversial documents suggested that Sangrama Wijaya (Raden Wijaya), the first King of Majapahit, is the son of Sunda King; Rakeyan Jayadharma. eek.gif

According to PUSTAKA RAJYARAJYA i BHUMI NUSANTARA parwa II sarga 3: RAKEYAN JAYADARMA is the son in law of MAHISA CAMPAKA of Singhasari. Prince Jayadharma wed DYAH SINGAMURTI alias DYAH LEMBU TAL.
This suggestion still disputable within Indonesian historian. Since there's no Javanese historical account confirm the Sunda origin of Raden Wijaya.
Some says this documents that tells the Sunda origin of Majapahit lineage is hoax and pure fiction, while the other historian such as Ayat Rohaedi, Professor of Archaeology from Universitas Indonesia, definitely support this documents as fact.

This might be the reason why Majapahit kings reluctant to attack Sunda, since their first king's origin is from Sunda. Thus there some sacred alliance between Sunda Galuh and Majapahit.
But ofcourse Gajah Mada insist to incorporated Sunda within Majapahit realm.

This is lists of Sundanese kings since mythical era... (only based on legends, no valid historic record of early era of Sunda history prior to Tarumanagara)... sorry in Bahasa Indonesia (too lazy to translate... embarassedlaugh.gif )

Salakanagara

Rajatapura atau Salakanagara (Kota Perak) tercantum dalam Naskah Wangsakerta sebagai kota tertua di Pulau Jawa. Tokoh awal yang berkuasa di sini adalah Aki Tirem. Konon, kota inilah yang disebut Argyre oleh Ptolemeus dalam tahun 150 M, terletak di daerah Teluk Lada Pandeglang. Kota ini sampai tahun 362 M menjadi pusat pemerintahan Raja-Raja Dewawarman (dari Dewawarman I - VIII).

Jayasingawarman pendiri Tarumanagara adalah menantu Raja Dewawarman VIII. Ia sendiri seorang Maharesi dari Salankayana di India yang mengungsi ke Nusantara karena daerahnya diserang dan ditaklukkan Maharaja Samudragupta dari Kerajaan Magada.


Tarumanagara

Jayasingawarman (358 - 382) Jayasingawarman pendiri Tarumanagara adalah menantu Raja Dewawarman VIII. Ia sendiri seorang Maharesi dari SALANKAYANA di India yang mengungsi ke Nusantara karena daerahnya diserang dan ditaklukkan Maharaja Samudragupta dari Kerajaan Magada. Setelah Jayasingawarman mendirikan Tarumanagara, pusat pemerintahan beralih dari Rajatapura ke Tarumangara. Salakanagara kemudian berubah menjadi Kerajaan Daerah. Jayasingawarman dipusarakan di tepi kali Gomati (Bekasi).

Dharmayawarman (382 - 395 M) Dipusarakan di tepi kali Candrabaga.

Purnawarman (395 - 434 M) Ia membangun ibukota kerajaan baru dalam tahun 397 yang terletak lebih dekat ke pantai dan dinamainya "Sundapura". Nama Sunda mulai digunakan oleh Maharaja Purnawarman dalam tahun 397 M untuk menyebut ibukota kerajaan yang didirikannya. Pustaka Nusantara,parwa II sarga 3 (halaman 159 - 162) menyebutkan bahwa di bawah kekuasaan Purnawarman terdapat 48 raja daerah yang membentang dari Salakanagara atau Rajatapura (di daerah Teluk Lada Pandeglang) sampai ke Purwalingga (sekarang Purbalingga?) di Jawa Tengah. Secara tradisional Ci Pamali (Kali Brebes) memang dianggap batas kekuasaan raja-raja penguasa Jawa Barat pada masa silam.

Wisnuwarman (434-455)

Indrawarman (455-515)

Candrawarman (515-535 M)

Suryawarman (535 - 561 M) Suryawarman tidak hanya melanjutkan kebijakan politik ayahnya yang memberikan kepercayaan lebih banyak kepada raja daerah untuk mengurus pemerintahan sendiri, melainkan juga mengalihkan perhatiannya ke daerah bagian timur. Dalam tahun 526 M, misalnya, Manikmaya, menantu Suryawarman, mendirikan kerajaan baru di Kendan, daerah Nagreg antara Bandung dan Limbangan, Garut. Sedangkan putera Manikmaya, tinggal bersama kakeknya di ibukota Tarumangara dan kemudian menjadi Panglima Angkatan Perang Tarumanagara. Perkembangan daerah timur menjadi lebih berkembang ketika cicit Manikmaya mendirikan Kerajaan Galuh dalam tahun 612 M.

Kertawarman (561-628)

Sudhawarman (628-639)

Hariwangsawarman (639-640)

Nagajayawarman (640-666)

Linggawarman (666-669) Tarumanagara sendiri hanya mengalami masa pemerintahan 12 orang raja. Dalam tahun 669, Linggawarman, raja Tarumanagara terakhir, digantikan menantunya, Tarusbawa. Linggawarman sendiri mempunyai dua orang puteri, yang sulung bernama Manasih menjadi istri Tarusbawa dan yang kedua bernama Sobakancana menjadi isteri Dapuntahyang Sri Jayanasa pendiri Kerajaan Sriwijaya.

TARUSBAWA (669 – 723 M) Tarusbawa yang berasal dari Kerajaan Sunda Sambawa menggantikan mertuanya menjadi penguasa Tarumanagara yang ke-13. Karena pamor Tarumanagara pada zamannya sudah sangat menurun, ia ingin mengembalikan keharuman jaman Purnawarman yang berkedudukan di purasaba (ibukota) Sundapura. Dalam tahun 670 ia mengganti nama Tarumanagara menjadi Kerajaan Sunda. Peristiwa ini dijadikan alasan oleh Wretikandayun, cicit Manikmaya, untuk memisahkan Kerajaan Galuh dari kekuasaan Tarusbawa. Karena Putera Mahkota Galuh (SENA or SANNA) berjodoh dengan Sanaha puteri Maharani Sima dari Kerajaan Kalingga, Jepara, Jawa Tengah, maka dengan dukungan Kalingga, Wretikandayun menuntut kepada Tarusbawa supaya bekas kawasan Tarumanagara dipecah dua. Dalam posisi lemah dan ingin menghindarkan perang saudara, Tarusbawa menerima tuntutan Galuh. Dalam tahun 670 M Kawasan Tarumanagara dipecah menjadi dua kerajaan, yaitu: Kerajaan Sunda dan Kerajaan Galuh dengan Citarum sebagai batas.

Kerajaan Sunda Galuh

TARUSBAWA (670 – 723 M) Maharaja Tarusbawa kemudian mendirikan ibukota kerajaan yang baru, di daerah pedalaman dekat hulu Cipakancilan. Dalam cerita Parahiyangan, tokoh Tarusbawa ini hanya disebut dengan gelarnya: Tohaan di Sunda (Raja Sunda). Ia menjadi cikalbakal raja-raja Sunda dan memerintah sampai tahun 723 M. Karena putera mahkota wafat mendahului Tarusbawa, maka anak wanita dari putera mahkota (bernama Tejakancana) diangkat sebagai anak dan ahli waris kerajaan.Suami puteri inilah yang dalam tahun 723 menggantikan Tarusbawa menjadi Raja Sunda.

Sanjaya / Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama (723 – 732M) Cicit Wretikandayun ini bernama Rakeyan Jamri. Sebagai penguasa Kerajaan Sunda ia dikenal dengan nama Prabu Harisdarma dan kemudian setelah menguasai Kerajaan Galuh ia lebih dikenal dengan Sanjaya. Ibu dari Sanjaya adalah SANAHA, cucu Maharani SIMA dari Kalingga, di Jepara. Ayah dari Sanjaya adalah Bratasenawa / SENA / SANNA, Raja Galuh ketiga, teman dekat Tarusbawa. Sena adalah cucu Wretikandayun dari putera bungsunya, Mandiminyak, raja Galuh kedua (702-709 M). Sena di tahun 716 M dikudeta dari tahta Galuh oleh PURBASORA. Purbasora dan Sena sebenarnya adalah saudara satu ibu, tapi lain ayah. Sena dan keluarganya menyelamatkan diri ke Pakuan, pusat Kerajaan Sunda, dan meminta pertolongan pada Tarusbawa. Ironis sekali memang, Wretikandayun, kakek Sena, sebelumnya menuntut Tarusbawa untuk memisahkan Kerajaan Galuh dari Tarumanegara / Kerajaan Sunda.Dikemudian hari, Sanjaya yang merupakan penerus Kerajaan Galuh yang sah, menyerang Galuh, dengan bantuan Tarusbawa, untuk melengserkan Purbasora. Setelah itu ia menjadi Raja Kerajaan Sunda Galuh. Sebagai ahli waris Kalingga, SANJAYA kemudian menjadi penguasa Kalingga Utara yang disebut Bumi MATARAM dalam tahun 732 M. Dengan kata lain, Sanjaya adalah penguasa Sunda, Galuh dan Kalingga / Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu). Kekuasaan di Jawa Barat diserahkannya kepada puteranya dari Tejakencana, yaitu Tamperan atau Rakeyan Panaraban.

Tamperan Barmawijaya / Rakeyan Panaraban (732 - 739 M) Ia adalah kakak seayah Rakai Panangkaran, Raja Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) ke 2, putera Sanjaya dari Sudiwara puteri Dewasinga Raja Kalingga Selatan atau Bumi SAMBARA.

Rakeyan Banga (739-766 M).

Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766-783 M).

Prabu Gilingwesi, menantu no. 5,(783-795 M).

Pucukbumi Darmeswara, menantu no. 6, (795-819 M).

Prabu Gajah Kulon Rakeyan Wuwus (819-891 M).

Prabu Darmaraksa (adik-ipar no. 8, 891 - 895 M).

Windusakti Prabu Dewageng (895 - 913 M).

Rakeyan Kemuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913-916 M).

Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Wanayasa, menantu no. 11, (916-942 M).

Prabu Resi Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942-954 M).

Limbur Kancana,putera no. 11,(954-964 M).

Prabu Munding Ganawirya (964-973 M).

Prabu Jayagiri Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 - 989 M).

Prabu Brajawisesa (989-1012 M).

Prabu Dewa Sanghyang (1012-1019M).

Prabu Sanghyang Ageng (1019 - 1030 M), berkedudukan di Galuh.

Prabu Detya Maharaja Sri Jayabupati (1030‚ - 1042 M ), berkedudukan di Pakuan. Pada masa itu Sriwijaya / orang Melayu menjadi momok yang menakutkan. Kerajaan Sunda Galuh untuk menghindari konflik dengan Sriwijaya, melakukan hubungan pernikahan antara raja ke 19, Prabu Sanghyang Ageng (Ayah dari Sri Jayabupati) dengan putri Sriwijaya. Jadi ibu Sri Jayabupati adalah seorang puteri Sriwijaya dan masih kerabat dekat Raja WURAWURI. Permaisuri Sri Jayabupati adalah puteri Dharmawangsa (adik Dewi LAKSMI isteri AIRLANGGA). Karena pernikahan tersebut Jayabupati mendapat anugerah gelar dari mertuanya (DHARMAWANGSA). Gelar itulah yang dicantumkannya dalam Prasasti Cibadak. Raja Sri Jayabupati pernah mengalami peristiwa tragis. Dalam kedudukannya sebagai Putera Mahkota Sunda keturunan Sriwijaya dan menantu Darmawangsa, ia harus menyaksikan permusuhan yang makin menjadi-jadi antara Sriwijaya dengan mertuanya (Dharmawangsa). Pada puncak krisis ia hanya menjadi 'penonton' dan terpaksa tinggal diam dalam kekecewaan karena harus 'menyaksikan' Darmawangsa diserang dan dibinasakan oleh raja Wurawuri atas dukungan Sriwijaya. Ia diberi tahu akan terjadinya serbuan itu oleh pihak Sriwijaya, akan tetapi ia dan ayahnya 'diancam' agar bersikap netral dalam hal ini. Serangan Wurawuri yang dalam Prasasti Calcuta disebut Pralaya itu terjadi tahun 1019 M. Sriwijaya sendiri musnah di tahun 1025 karena serangan Kerajaan Chola dari India. Tahun 1088, Kerajaan Melayu Jambi, menaklukan Sriwijaya, dan berkuasa selama dua ratus tahun. Dua abad kemudian, kedua kerajaan tersebut menjadi taklukan kerajaan Singhasari di era Raja Kertanegara, dengan mengirimkan Senopati Mahisa / Kebo / Lembu ANABRANG, dalam ekspedisi PAMALAYU 1 dan 2, dengan pertimbangan untuk mengamankan jalur pelayaran di selat Malaka yang sangat rawan Bajak Laut setelah runtuhnya Sriwijaya di tahun 1025. Mahisa Anabrang yang menikah dengan DARA JINGGA (anak dari Raja Kerajaan Melayu Jambi, MAULIWARMADHEWA), adalah ayah dari Adityawarman, pendiri Kerajaan Pagaruyung. Dara Jingga dikenal juga sebagai BUNDO KANDUANG dalam hikayat Kerajaan Pagaruyung atau Minangkabau. Mungkin istilah MINANG-KABAU berasal dari adanya KEBO (KEBO / Mahisa / Lembu ANABRANG) yang me-MINANG putri Raja Kerajaan Dharmasraya / Kerajaan Melayu Jambi.

Raja Sunda ke 21 berkedudukan di Galuh

Raja Sunda ke 22 berkedudukan di Pakuan

Raja Sunda ke 23 berkedudukan di Pakuan

Raja Sunda ke-24 memerintah di Galuh
PRABU GURU DHARMASIKSA, mula-mula berkedudukan di Saunggalah, kemudian pindah ke Pakuan.

RAKEYAN JAYADARMA, berkedudukan di Pakuan. Menurut PUSTAKA RAJYARAJYA i BHUMI NUSANTARA parwa II sarga 3: RAKEYAN JAYADARMA adalah menantu MAHISA CAMPAKA di Jawa Timur karena ia berjodoh dengan DYAH SINGAMURTI alias DYAH LEMBU TAL. Mahisa Campaka adalah anak dari MAHISA WONGATELENG, yang merupakan anak dari KEN ANGROK dan KEN DEDES dari kerajaan SINGHASARI. Mahisa Campaka dan Dyah Lembu Tal berputera SANG NARARYA SANGGRAMAWIJAYA atau lebih dikenal dengan nama RADEN WIJAYA (lahir di PAKUAN). Dengan kata lain, Raden Wijaya adalah turunan ke 4 dari Ken Angrok dan Ken Dedes. Karena Jayadarma wafat dalam usia muda, Lembu Tal tidak bersedia tinggal lebih lama di Pakuan. Akhirnya Wijaya dan ibunya diantarkan ke Jawa Timur. Dalam BABAD TANAH JAWI, Wijaya disebut pula JAKA SUSURUH dari PAJAJARAN yang kemudian menjadi Raja MAJAPAHIT yang pertama. Kematian Jayadarma mengosongkan kedudukan putera mahkota karena Wijaya berada di Jawa Timur. Jadi, sebenarnya, RADEN WIJAYA, Raja MAJAPAHIT pertama, adalah penerus sah dari tahta Kerajaan Sunda yang ke-27.

Prabu Ragasuci (1297 – 1303M) berkedudukan di Saunggalah dan dipusarakan di Taman, Ciamis. Ragasuci sebenarnya bukan putera mahkota karena kedudukanya itu dijabat kakaknya RAKEYAN JAYADARMA. Permaisuri Ragasuci adalah DARA PUSPA (Puteri Kerajaan Melayu) adik DARA KENCANA isteri KERTANEGARA, dari kerajaan SINGHASARI di Jawa Timur.

Prabu Citraganda (1303 – 1311 M), berkedudukan di Pakuan. Ketika wafat ia dipusarakan di Tanjung.

Prabu Lingga Dewata (1311 – 1333), berkedudukan di Kawali.

Prabu Ajiguna Wisesa (1333 - 1340), berkedudukan di Kawali, adalah menantu Prabu Lingga Dewata. Sampai tahun 1482 pusat pemerintahan tetap berada di sana. Bisa dikatakan bahwa tahun 1333 - 1482 adalah JAMAN KAWALI dalam sejarah pemerintahan di Jawa Barat dan mengenal 5 orang raja. Lain dengan Galuh, nama Kawali terabadikan dalam dua buah prasasti batu peninggalan PRABU RAJA WASTU yang tersimpan di "ASTANA GEDE" Kawali. Dalam prasasti itu ditegaskan "mangadeg di kuta Kawali" (bertahta di kota Kawali) dan keratonnya disebut SURAWISESA yang dijelaskan sebagai "Dalem sipawindu hurip" (keraton yang memberikan ketenangan hidup).

Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana (1340 – 1357). Gugur di Bubat, Majapahit pada tahun 1357.

MANGKUBUMI SURADIPATI atau PRABU BUNISORA, adik Prabu Lingga Buana. Ada yang menyebut PRABU KUDA LALEAN. Dalam BABAD PANJALU disebut PRABU BOROSNGORA. Selain itu ia pun dijuluki BATARA GURU di Jampang karena ia menjadi pertapa dan resi yang ulung).

Prabu Raja Wastu atau Niskala Wastu Kancana(1371-1475). Beliau adalah anak Prabu Lingga Buana, dinobatkan menjadi raja pada tahun 1371 pada usia 23 tahun. Permaisurinya yang pertama adalah LARA SARKATI puteri Lampung. Dari perkawinan ini lahir SANG HALIWUNGAN (setelah dinobatkan menjadi Raja Sunda bergelar PRABU SUSUKTUNGGAL). Permaisuri yang kedua adalah MAYANGSARI puteri sulung Bunisora atau Mangkubumi Suradipati. Dari perkawinan ini lahir NINGRAT KANCANA (setelah menjadi penguasa Galuh bergelar PRABU DEWA NISKALA). Setelah Wastu Kancana wafat tahun 1475, kerajaan dipecah dua diantara Susuktunggal dan Dewa Niskala dalam kedudukan sederajat. Politik kesatuan wilayah telah membuat jalinan perkawinan antar cucu Wastu Kencana. JAYADEWATA, putera Dewa Niskala mula-mula memperistri AMBETKASIH (puteri KI GEDENG SINDANGKASIH). Kemudian memperistri SUBANGLARANG (puteri KI GEDENG TAPA yang menjadi Raja Singapura). Subanglarang ini keluaran pesantren Pondok QURO di PURA, Karawang. Ia seorang wanita muslim murid SYEKH HASANUDIN yang menganut MAHZAB HANAFI. Pesantren Qura di Karawang didirikan tahun 1416 dalam masa pemerintahan Wastu Kancana. Subanglarang belajar di situ selama 2 tahun. Ia adalah nenek SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH. Kemudian memperistri KENTRING MANIK MAYANG SUNDA puteri Prabu Susuktunggal. Jadilah antara Raja Sunda dan Raja Raja Galuh yang seayah ini menjadi besan. Di tahun 1482, Prabu Dewa Niskala menyerahkan Tahta Kerajaan Galuh kepada puteranya Jayadewata. Demikian pula dengan Prabu Susuktungal yang menyerahkan Tahta Kerajaan Sunda kepada menantunya ini (Jayadewata). Dengan peristiwa yang terjadi tahun 1482 itu, kerajaan warisan Wastu Kencana berada kembali dalam satu tangan.

JAYADEWATA memutuskan untuk berkedudukan di Pakuan sebagai "Susuhunan" karena ia telah lama tinggal di sini menjalankan pemerintahan sehari-hari mewakili mertuanya. Sekali lagi Pakuan menjadi pusat pemerintahan. Jaman Pajajaran diawali oleh pemerintahan Ratu Jayadewata yang bergelar Sri Baduga Maharaja yang memerintah selama 39 tahun (1482 - 1521). Pada masa inilah Pakuan mencapai puncak perkembangannya.

Raja-Raja Sunda yang menjadi Raja di Mataram dan Majapahit
Jadi ada dua penerus sah dari tahta KERAJAAN SUNDA yang menjadi raja besar di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur.

Sanjaya / Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama, raja ke 2 Kerajaan Sunda (723 – 732M), menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 - 760M). Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya.
Raden Wijaya, penerus sah Kerajaan Sunda ke – 27, yang lahir di Pakuan, menjadi Raja Majapahit pertama (1293 – 1309 M).

Pajajaran

Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482 – 1521)

Surawisesa (1521 – 1535)

Ratu Dewata (1535 – 1543)

Ratu Sakti (1543 – 1551)

Raga Mulya (1567 – 1579)
Berakhirnya jaman Pajajaran (1482 - 1579), ditandai dengan diboyongnya PALANGKA SRIMAN SRIWACANA (Tempat duduk tempat penobatan tahta) dari Pakuan ke Surasowan di Banten oleh pasukan Maulana Yusuf. Batu berukuran 200 x 160 x 20 cm itu terpaksa di boyong ke Banten karena tradisi politik waktu itu "mengharuskan" demikian.

Pertama, dengan dirampasnya Palangka tersebut, di Pakuan tidak mungkin lagi dinobatkan raja baru.

Kedua, dengan memiliki Palangka itu, Maulana Yusuf merupakan penerus kekuasaan Pajajaran yang "sah" karena buyut perempuannya adalah puteri Sri Baduga Maharaja.

Palangka Sriman Sriwacana sendiri saat ini bisa ditemukan di depan bekas Keraton Surasowan di Banten. Karena mengkilap, orang Banten menyebutnya WATU GIGILANG. Kata Gigilang berarti mengkilap atau berseri, sama artinya dengan kata Sriman.
Larasati
mas maja,where actually kings of majapahit lived?...did they live in keraton?....kok gak ada sisa2nya yaa...kok cuma candi2 aja yg tersisa....
Majapahitans
QUOTE(Larasati @ Nov 8 2006, 11:33 AM) [snapback]2463124[/snapback]

mas maja,where actually kings of majapahit lived?...did they live in keraton?....kok gak ada sisa2nya yaa...kok cuma candi2 aja yg tersisa....


The capital city of Majapahit is the area now known as Trowulan, Mojokerto.
Majapahit kings lived in large Palace (keraton).
Negarakertagama describe the grandeur beauty of Keraton Majapahit.

During the height of Majapahit, It was a LARGE city..... with several thousands populations.
Majapahit capital city is early example of Indonesian urban design.

This mid November, National Museum of Jakarta (Museum Gajah) will held special exhibition of Majapahit.
If you have time please visit it...
tangawizi
QUOTE(Sirikittong @ Oct 17 2006, 08:07 PM) [snapback]2401585[/snapback]

Dyah Pitaloka Chitraresmi ...the pricess that commited suicide rather than be taken by Majapahit Imperial forces, khun?


Can someone tell me why is it in many historical myths and legends, there is always a brave, pure and loyal woman who would rather sacrifice herself then succumb to being the bride or prize of another tribe?

Why is there always a woman in ancient tribal wars?

Why is racial purity so valued by ancient tribes?
Majapahitans
@ Mbak Larasati:

Here's the Prapanca's description of Majapahit capital city:

Tersebut keajaiban kota, tembok batu merah, tebal tinggi, mengitari pura. Pintu barat bernama Pura Waktra, menghadap ke lapangan luas, bersabuk parit. Pohon Brahmastana berkaki bodhi, berjajar panjang, rapi berbentuk aneka ragam. Di situlah tempat tunggu para tanda terus meronda, jaga paseban.

Di sebelah utara bertegak gapura permai dengan pintu besi penuh berukir. Di sebelah timur, panggung luhur, lantainya berlapis batu, putih-putih mengkilat. Di bagian utara, di selatan pekan, rumah berjejal jauh memanjang, sangat indah. Di selatan jalan perempat, balai prajurit tempat pertemuan tiap Caitra.

Balai agung Manguntur dengan balai Witana di tengah, menghadap padang Watangan. Yang meluas ke empat arah; bagian utara paseban pujangga dan menteri. Bagian timur paseban pendeta Siwa-Buddha, yang bertugas membahas upacara. Pada bulan Palguna demi keselamatan seluruh dunia.

Saduran Negarakertagama
Pupuh VIII

QUOTE(tangawizi @ Nov 9 2006, 01:45 AM) [snapback]2465669[/snapback]

Can someone tell me why is it in many historical myths and legends, there is always a brave, pure and loyal woman who would rather sacrifice herself then succumb to being the bride or prize of another tribe?

Why is there always a woman in ancient tribal wars?

Why is racial purity so valued by ancient tribes?


The Pasunda Bubat is nothing to do with racial tribal purity.
It also nothing like tribal war.

You must understand that in 14th century AD, the island of Java has developed complex and advanced society, perfectly describe as a kingdom (even empire) rather than merely tribe.

This bloodshed is more likely caused by Political Conflict, and "The Dignity" of a Kingdom.

At first both parties (Majapahit and Sunda) are willing to ties closer alliance signed with royal marriage between the emperor Rajasanagara (Hayam Wuruk) of Majapahit with Princess Dyah Pitaloka Chitra Rashmi of Sunda.
When the Princess and her family with entire Sunda courtier arrived at Majapahit, Gajah Mada use this situation to "force" Sunda submission towards Majapahit.

Although the King of Sunda realize that he's facing a "certain death" within Majapahit's traps, even for some people this act may considered "suicidal".
But for the dignity of his kingdom, he refuse to submit, and willing to face death.
Even the Princess refused to escape, all the women refuse to leaving men of their family to safety.
In Hindu beliefs..., for Ksatriyas (warrior caste) this is facing true-noble-death.
As for Ksatriyas, death on battlefield, for the honor of their kingdom and their ideals, is truly an honorable act, and ultimate death. (remind me of Bushido Samurai ethics in medieval Japan). biggthumpup.gif

In this case the Princess is somehow "serve" as "the symbol of the Kingdom", or as "The Royal Prize".
But with her famed Beauty, what a prize it was.... love2.gif
Beautiful and noble women are often suffer bacause their beauty and their blood.... bawling.gif
Larasati
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 9 2006, 05:41 AM) [snapback]2466362[/snapback]

@ Mbak Larasati:

Here's the Prapanca's description of Majapahit capital city:

Tersebut keajaiban kota, tembok batu merah, tebal tinggi, mengitari pura. Pintu barat bernama Pura Waktra, menghadap ke lapangan luas, bersabuk parit. Pohon Brahmastana berkaki bodhi, berjajar panjang, rapi berbentuk aneka ragam. Di situlah tempat tunggu para tanda terus meronda, jaga paseban.

Di sebelah utara bertegak gapura permai dengan pintu besi penuh berukir. Di sebelah timur, panggung luhur, lantainya berlapis batu, putih-putih mengkilat. Di bagian utara, di selatan pekan, rumah berjejal jauh memanjang, sangat indah. Di selatan jalan perempat, balai prajurit tempat pertemuan tiap Caitra.

Balai agung Manguntur dengan balai Witana di tengah, menghadap padang Watangan. Yang meluas ke empat arah; bagian utara paseban pujangga dan menteri. Bagian timur paseban pendeta Siwa-Buddha, yang bertugas membahas upacara. Pada bulan Palguna demi keselamatan seluruh dunia.

Saduran Negarakertagama
Pupuh VIII


Thanks for your explaination mas maja,you're the best historian i've ever known...he...he...he.. biggthumpup.gif
beerchug.gif biggrin.gif
what i wanna know is....why there's no any ruin of majapahit (except candi) that we can find in the majapahit site,including palace/kraton,houses,building etc....just like ancient rome have collesium,pantheon,aquaduct etc.......do you think that's because they used woods for their building materials?...... so it wouldn't last long icon_wink.gif
Majapahitans
QUOTE(Larasati @ Nov 9 2006, 10:13 AM) [snapback]2466563[/snapback]

Thanks for your explaination mas maja,you're the best historian i've ever known...he...he...he.. biggthumpup.gif


You're welcome.... biggrin.gif


QUOTE(Larasati @ Nov 9 2006, 10:13 AM) [snapback]2466563[/snapback]

what i wanna know is....why there's no any ruin of majapahit (except candi) that we can find in the majapahit site,including palace/kraton,houses,building etc....just like ancient rome have collesium,pantheon,aquaduct etc.......do you think that's because they used woods for their building materials?...... icon_wink.gif


Actually there's also lots of secular (non religious) building, the remnant of Majapahit capital city.
So.., not just Candi. icon_wink.gif

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Candi Brahu, Majapahit


In Trowulan we can find Candi Brahu, it is indeed a temple, but other building like gates, large reservoir, and bathing pool are "mistakenly" called "candi", like Candi Wringin Lawang...., it is not a temple, but large split gate, also Candi (Gate) Bajang Ratu and Candi Tikus is actually a bathing pool.

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The elegant Paduraksa Gate of Bajang Ratu, Mojokerto, East Java

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Candi Tikus, actually a royal bathing pool....
Imagine ancient princesses nude, bathing in this place..... biggrin.gif

You are right about that wooden building of Majapahit. The column (soko guru), and roof frame are made from teak wood, so leave no trace, But stone and terracota (brick) are still remain in Majapahit.
Also the base of the building (foundation, floor, base of wooden column).

The worse thing is...., the local people at Mojokerto making and selling bricks.
They destroy ancient brick remnant of Majapahit building, and make new brick out from it. eek.gif
Larasati
thanks again mas maja.....those are awesome pictures biggthumpup.gif btw,where did you find those pics?.....
GluTTony
Thanks for the pics and thread Majapahitan! I actually feel like I'm in the Majapahit era by looking at these pics biggrin.gif even fantisizing the princess bathing biggrin.gif

just wanna ask, how did the sundanese get their looks different from Javanese as you described,icon_smile.gif is it from offspring or because of somthing else?

QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Oct 20 2006, 01:44 AM) [snapback]2408005[/snapback]


But the fabled beauty is Sundanese royal family. The royal family of Sunda are famous for their beauty, (men and women) for generations; light, clear and smooth skin, big eyes and thick dark eyebrows, black jet wavy hair, red lips. This physical feature almost common in Sundanese royalties descends even found today. Rosa, Paramitha Rusady, and late Nike Ardilla has ancient noble Sunda royalty blood in them. Mereka masih ningrat, while Dessy Ratnasari has that typical Sunda beauty, maybe if traced her ancestor, we'll find ancient lineage too.



Tata(Tommy's Ex wife) is Sundanese right?Great Example of how sundanese look like biggthumpup.gif

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Bhaskara
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 8 2006, 11:25 PM) [snapback]2463105[/snapback]

Me insisting on Sunda independence from Majapahit.....? confused.gif
Actually Sunda are defeated by Majapahit. The heroic death of Sunda King on Bubat square confirm it.
Yes..., King of Sunda is killed on Majapahit soil, but Majapahit never gain direct effective control over Sunda lands.... The capital of Sunda at that time, Surawisesa Palace, Kawali, (now near Ciamis) enjoy certain degree of independence.

Why Majapahit successfully conquer rest of Nusantara but can not conquer Sunda in military way...?
Although they're share same island.
Simple..., because....:
Next to Javanese, Sundanese has large population....
Sunda-Galuh is kingdom based on agriculture... so they estimated to have large population and able to support large army.
If you see ethnicity census in Indonesia, Sundanese is the second largest ethnic group after Javanese.

Sunda Galuh able to held large amount of manpower, and maintain large army.
Unlike Srivijaya that has their capital near large river, thus make it prone to Majapahit naval invasion, Sunda capital lies deep inland. Majapahit soldier will suffer guerillas warfare, also attack from army hidden in jungle, and large amount of them too.

The history of Pasundan consist of several era:

1. SALAKANAGARA (Capital at Teluk Lada Pandeglang (RAJATAPURA))
2. TARUMANAGARA (Capital at Chandrabhaga/Bekasi (TARUMANGARA) & Bogor (SUNDAPURA))
3. SUNDA GALUH (Capital at (PAKUAN); Kuningan (SAUNGGALAH); Ciamis (KAWALI))
4. PAJAJARAN (Capital at Bogor (PAKUAN))

The kingdom that involved in war with Majapahit (Pasunda Bubat massacre) is Sunda Galuh.

Oh yeah.. correction, the Sunda King that killed in Majapahit is Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana (1340 – 1357). Not Sri Baduga Maharaja. embarassedlaugh.gif

Although not as extensive as central and east Java, Sunda is thriving kingdom back then.
The history of Sunda is collected based on legends and folk stories (like the early states of Salakanagara), from Tarumanagara inscriptions found near Bogor, Jakarta and Bekasi, and many historic account also books of Cirebon Prince.

The interesting things is the name of Sunda kings are often correspon with Javanese counterparts, like Sanjaya of Ancient Mataram, the same as Sanjaya / Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama, king of Galuh.

Latest controversial documents suggested that Sangrama Wijaya (Raden Wijaya), the first King of Majapahit, is the son of Sunda King; Rakeyan Jayadharma. eek.gif

According to PUSTAKA RAJYARAJYA i BHUMI NUSANTARA parwa II sarga 3: RAKEYAN JAYADARMA is the son in law of MAHISA CAMPAKA of Singhasari. Prince Jayadharma wed DYAH SINGAMURTI alias DYAH LEMBU TAL.
This suggestion still disputable within Indonesian historian. Since there's no Javanese historical account confirm the Sunda origin of Raden Wijaya.
Some says this documents that tells the Sunda origin of Majapahit lineage is hoax and pure fiction, while the other historian such as Ayat Rohaedi, Professor of Archaeology from Universitas Indonesia, definitely support this documents as fact.

This might be the reason why Majapahit kings reluctant to attack Sunda, since their first king's origin is from Sunda. Thus there some sacred alliance between Sunda Galuh and Majapahit.
But ofcourse Gajah Mada insist to incorporated Sunda within Majapahit realm.

This is lists of Sundanese kings since mythical era... (only based on legends, no valid historic record of early era of Sunda history prior to Tarumanagara)... sorry in Bahasa Indonesia (too lazy to translate... embarassedlaugh.gif )

Salakanagara

Rajatapura atau Salakanagara (Kota Perak) tercantum dalam Naskah Wangsakerta sebagai kota tertua di Pulau Jawa. Tokoh awal yang berkuasa di sini adalah Aki Tirem. Konon, kota inilah yang disebut Argyre oleh Ptolemeus dalam tahun 150 M, terletak di daerah Teluk Lada Pandeglang. Kota ini sampai tahun 362 M menjadi pusat pemerintahan Raja-Raja Dewawarman (dari Dewawarman I - VIII).

Jayasingawarman pendiri Tarumanagara adalah menantu Raja Dewawarman VIII. Ia sendiri seorang Maharesi dari Salankayana di India yang mengungsi ke Nusantara karena daerahnya diserang dan ditaklukkan Maharaja Samudragupta dari Kerajaan Magada.
Tarumanagara

Jayasingawarman (358 - 382) Jayasingawarman pendiri Tarumanagara adalah menantu Raja Dewawarman VIII. Ia sendiri seorang Maharesi dari SALANKAYANA di India yang mengungsi ke Nusantara karena daerahnya diserang dan ditaklukkan Maharaja Samudragupta dari Kerajaan Magada. Setelah Jayasingawarman mendirikan Tarumanagara, pusat pemerintahan beralih dari Rajatapura ke Tarumangara. Salakanagara kemudian berubah menjadi Kerajaan Daerah. Jayasingawarman dipusarakan di tepi kali Gomati (Bekasi).

Dharmayawarman (382 - 395 M) Dipusarakan di tepi kali Candrabaga.

Purnawarman (395 - 434 M) Ia membangun ibukota kerajaan baru dalam tahun 397 yang terletak lebih dekat ke pantai dan dinamainya "Sundapura". Nama Sunda mulai digunakan oleh Maharaja Purnawarman dalam tahun 397 M untuk menyebut ibukota kerajaan yang didirikannya. Pustaka Nusantara,parwa II sarga 3 (halaman 159 - 162) menyebutkan bahwa di bawah kekuasaan Purnawarman terdapat 48 raja daerah yang membentang dari Salakanagara atau Rajatapura (di daerah Teluk Lada Pandeglang) sampai ke Purwalingga (sekarang Purbalingga?) di Jawa Tengah. Secara tradisional Ci Pamali (Kali Brebes) memang dianggap batas kekuasaan raja-raja penguasa Jawa Barat pada masa silam.

Wisnuwarman (434-455)

Indrawarman (455-515)

Candrawarman (515-535 M)

Suryawarman (535 - 561 M) Suryawarman tidak hanya melanjutkan kebijakan politik ayahnya yang memberikan kepercayaan lebih banyak kepada raja daerah untuk mengurus pemerintahan sendiri, melainkan juga mengalihkan perhatiannya ke daerah bagian timur. Dalam tahun 526 M, misalnya, Manikmaya, menantu Suryawarman, mendirikan kerajaan baru di Kendan, daerah Nagreg antara Bandung dan Limbangan, Garut. Sedangkan putera Manikmaya, tinggal bersama kakeknya di ibukota Tarumangara dan kemudian menjadi Panglima Angkatan Perang Tarumanagara. Perkembangan daerah timur menjadi lebih berkembang ketika cicit Manikmaya mendirikan Kerajaan Galuh dalam tahun 612 M.

Kertawarman (561-628)

Sudhawarman (628-639)

Hariwangsawarman (639-640)

Nagajayawarman (640-666)

Linggawarman (666-669) Tarumanagara sendiri hanya mengalami masa pemerintahan 12 orang raja. Dalam tahun 669, Linggawarman, raja Tarumanagara terakhir, digantikan menantunya, Tarusbawa. Linggawarman sendiri mempunyai dua orang puteri, yang sulung bernama Manasih menjadi istri Tarusbawa dan yang kedua bernama Sobakancana menjadi isteri Dapuntahyang Sri Jayanasa pendiri Kerajaan Sriwijaya.

TARUSBAWA (669 – 723 M) Tarusbawa yang berasal dari Kerajaan Sunda Sambawa menggantikan mertuanya menjadi penguasa Tarumanagara yang ke-13. Karena pamor Tarumanagara pada zamannya sudah sangat menurun, ia ingin mengembalikan keharuman jaman Purnawarman yang berkedudukan di purasaba (ibukota) Sundapura. Dalam tahun 670 ia mengganti nama Tarumanagara menjadi Kerajaan Sunda. Peristiwa ini dijadikan alasan oleh Wretikandayun, cicit Manikmaya, untuk memisahkan Kerajaan Galuh dari kekuasaan Tarusbawa. Karena Putera Mahkota Galuh (SENA or SANNA) berjodoh dengan Sanaha puteri Maharani Sima dari Kerajaan Kalingga, Jepara, Jawa Tengah, maka dengan dukungan Kalingga, Wretikandayun menuntut kepada Tarusbawa supaya bekas kawasan Tarumanagara dipecah dua. Dalam posisi lemah dan ingin menghindarkan perang saudara, Tarusbawa menerima tuntutan Galuh. Dalam tahun 670 M Kawasan Tarumanagara dipecah menjadi dua kerajaan, yaitu: Kerajaan Sunda dan Kerajaan Galuh dengan Citarum sebagai batas.

Kerajaan Sunda Galuh

TARUSBAWA (670 – 723 M) Maharaja Tarusbawa kemudian mendirikan ibukota kerajaan yang baru, di daerah pedalaman dekat hulu Cipakancilan. Dalam cerita Parahiyangan, tokoh Tarusbawa ini hanya disebut dengan gelarnya: Tohaan di Sunda (Raja Sunda). Ia menjadi cikalbakal raja-raja Sunda dan memerintah sampai tahun 723 M. Karena putera mahkota wafat mendahului Tarusbawa, maka anak wanita dari putera mahkota (bernama Tejakancana) diangkat sebagai anak dan ahli waris kerajaan.Suami puteri inilah yang dalam tahun 723 menggantikan Tarusbawa menjadi Raja Sunda.

Sanjaya / Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama (723 – 732M) Cicit Wretikandayun ini bernama Rakeyan Jamri. Sebagai penguasa Kerajaan Sunda ia dikenal dengan nama Prabu Harisdarma dan kemudian setelah menguasai Kerajaan Galuh ia lebih dikenal dengan Sanjaya. Ibu dari Sanjaya adalah SANAHA, cucu Maharani SIMA dari Kalingga, di Jepara. Ayah dari Sanjaya adalah Bratasenawa / SENA / SANNA, Raja Galuh ketiga, teman dekat Tarusbawa. Sena adalah cucu Wretikandayun dari putera bungsunya, Mandiminyak, raja Galuh kedua (702-709 M). Sena di tahun 716 M dikudeta dari tahta Galuh oleh PURBASORA. Purbasora dan Sena sebenarnya adalah saudara satu ibu, tapi lain ayah. Sena dan keluarganya menyelamatkan diri ke Pakuan, pusat Kerajaan Sunda, dan meminta pertolongan pada Tarusbawa. Ironis sekali memang, Wretikandayun, kakek Sena, sebelumnya menuntut Tarusbawa untuk memisahkan Kerajaan Galuh dari Tarumanegara / Kerajaan Sunda.Dikemudian hari, Sanjaya yang merupakan penerus Kerajaan Galuh yang sah, menyerang Galuh, dengan bantuan Tarusbawa, untuk melengserkan Purbasora. Setelah itu ia menjadi Raja Kerajaan Sunda Galuh. Sebagai ahli waris Kalingga, SANJAYA kemudian menjadi penguasa Kalingga Utara yang disebut Bumi MATARAM dalam tahun 732 M. Dengan kata lain, Sanjaya adalah penguasa Sunda, Galuh dan Kalingga / Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu). Kekuasaan di Jawa Barat diserahkannya kepada puteranya dari Tejakencana, yaitu Tamperan atau Rakeyan Panaraban.

Tamperan Barmawijaya / Rakeyan Panaraban (732 - 739 M) Ia adalah kakak seayah Rakai Panangkaran, Raja Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) ke 2, putera Sanjaya dari Sudiwara puteri Dewasinga Raja Kalingga Selatan atau Bumi SAMBARA.

Rakeyan Banga (739-766 M).

Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766-783 M).

Prabu Gilingwesi, menantu no. 5,(783-795 M).

Pucukbumi Darmeswara, menantu no. 6, (795-819 M).

Prabu Gajah Kulon Rakeyan Wuwus (819-891 M).

Prabu Darmaraksa (adik-ipar no. 8, 891 - 895 M).

Windusakti Prabu Dewageng (895 - 913 M).

Rakeyan Kemuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913-916 M).

Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Wanayasa, menantu no. 11, (916-942 M).

Prabu Resi Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942-954 M).

Limbur Kancana,putera no. 11,(954-964 M).

Prabu Munding Ganawirya (964-973 M).

Prabu Jayagiri Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 - 989 M).

Prabu Brajawisesa (989-1012 M).

Prabu Dewa Sanghyang (1012-1019M).

Prabu Sanghyang Ageng (1019 - 1030 M), berkedudukan di Galuh.

Prabu Detya Maharaja Sri Jayabupati (1030‚ - 1042 M ), berkedudukan di Pakuan. Pada masa itu Sriwijaya / orang Melayu menjadi momok yang menakutkan. Kerajaan Sunda Galuh untuk menghindari konflik dengan Sriwijaya, melakukan hubungan pernikahan antara raja ke 19, Prabu Sanghyang Ageng (Ayah dari Sri Jayabupati) dengan putri Sriwijaya. Jadi ibu Sri Jayabupati adalah seorang puteri Sriwijaya dan masih kerabat dekat Raja WURAWURI. Permaisuri Sri Jayabupati adalah puteri Dharmawangsa (adik Dewi LAKSMI isteri AIRLANGGA). Karena pernikahan tersebut Jayabupati mendapat anugerah gelar dari mertuanya (DHARMAWANGSA). Gelar itulah yang dicantumkannya dalam Prasasti Cibadak. Raja Sri Jayabupati pernah mengalami peristiwa tragis. Dalam kedudukannya sebagai Putera Mahkota Sunda keturunan Sriwijaya dan menantu Darmawangsa, ia harus menyaksikan permusuhan yang makin menjadi-jadi antara Sriwijaya dengan mertuanya (Dharmawangsa). Pada puncak krisis ia hanya menjadi 'penonton' dan terpaksa tinggal diam dalam kekecewaan karena harus 'menyaksikan' Darmawangsa diserang dan dibinasakan oleh raja Wurawuri atas dukungan Sriwijaya. Ia diberi tahu akan terjadinya serbuan itu oleh pihak Sriwijaya, akan tetapi ia dan ayahnya 'diancam' agar bersikap netral dalam hal ini. Serangan Wurawuri yang dalam Prasasti Calcuta disebut Pralaya itu terjadi tahun 1019 M. Sriwijaya sendiri musnah di tahun 1025 karena serangan Kerajaan Chola dari India. Tahun 1088, Kerajaan Melayu Jambi, menaklukan Sriwijaya, dan berkuasa selama dua ratus tahun. Dua abad kemudian, kedua kerajaan tersebut menjadi taklukan kerajaan Singhasari di era Raja Kertanegara, dengan mengirimkan Senopati Mahisa / Kebo / Lembu ANABRANG, dalam ekspedisi PAMALAYU 1 dan 2, dengan pertimbangan untuk mengamankan jalur pelayaran di selat Malaka yang sangat rawan Bajak Laut setelah runtuhnya Sriwijaya di tahun 1025. Mahisa Anabrang yang menikah dengan DARA JINGGA (anak dari Raja Kerajaan Melayu Jambi, MAULIWARMADHEWA), adalah ayah dari Adityawarman, pendiri Kerajaan Pagaruyung. Dara Jingga dikenal juga sebagai BUNDO KANDUANG dalam hikayat Kerajaan Pagaruyung atau Minangkabau. Mungkin istilah MINANG-KABAU berasal dari adanya KEBO (KEBO / Mahisa / Lembu ANABRANG) yang me-MINANG putri Raja Kerajaan Dharmasraya / Kerajaan Melayu Jambi.

Raja Sunda ke 21 berkedudukan di Galuh

Raja Sunda ke 22 berkedudukan di Pakuan

Raja Sunda ke 23 berkedudukan di Pakuan

Raja Sunda ke-24 memerintah di Galuh
PRABU GURU DHARMASIKSA, mula-mula berkedudukan di Saunggalah, kemudian pindah ke Pakuan.

RAKEYAN JAYADARMA, berkedudukan di Pakuan. Menurut PUSTAKA RAJYARAJYA i BHUMI NUSANTARA parwa II sarga 3: RAKEYAN JAYADARMA adalah menantu MAHISA CAMPAKA di Jawa Timur karena ia berjodoh dengan DYAH SINGAMURTI alias DYAH LEMBU TAL. Mahisa Campaka adalah anak dari MAHISA WONGATELENG, yang merupakan anak dari KEN ANGROK dan KEN DEDES dari kerajaan SINGHASARI. Mahisa Campaka dan Dyah Lembu Tal berputera SANG NARARYA SANGGRAMAWIJAYA atau lebih dikenal dengan nama RADEN WIJAYA (lahir di PAKUAN). Dengan kata lain, Raden Wijaya adalah turunan ke 4 dari Ken Angrok dan Ken Dedes. Karena Jayadarma wafat dalam usia muda, Lembu Tal tidak bersedia tinggal lebih lama di Pakuan. Akhirnya Wijaya dan ibunya diantarkan ke Jawa Timur. Dalam BABAD TANAH JAWI, Wijaya disebut pula JAKA SUSURUH dari PAJAJARAN yang kemudian menjadi Raja MAJAPAHIT yang pertama. Kematian Jayadarma mengosongkan kedudukan putera mahkota karena Wijaya berada di Jawa Timur. Jadi, sebenarnya, RADEN WIJAYA, Raja MAJAPAHIT pertama, adalah penerus sah dari tahta Kerajaan Sunda yang ke-27.

Prabu Ragasuci (1297 – 1303M) berkedudukan di Saunggalah dan dipusarakan di Taman, Ciamis. Ragasuci sebenarnya bukan putera mahkota karena kedudukanya itu dijabat kakaknya RAKEYAN JAYADARMA. Permaisuri Ragasuci adalah DARA PUSPA (Puteri Kerajaan Melayu) adik DARA KENCANA isteri KERTANEGARA, dari kerajaan SINGHASARI di Jawa Timur.

Prabu Citraganda (1303 – 1311 M), berkedudukan di Pakuan. Ketika wafat ia dipusarakan di Tanjung.

Prabu Lingga Dewata (1311 – 1333), berkedudukan di Kawali.

Prabu Ajiguna Wisesa (1333 - 1340), berkedudukan di Kawali, adalah menantu Prabu Lingga Dewata. Sampai tahun 1482 pusat pemerintahan tetap berada di sana. Bisa dikatakan bahwa tahun 1333 - 1482 adalah JAMAN KAWALI dalam sejarah pemerintahan di Jawa Barat dan mengenal 5 orang raja. Lain dengan Galuh, nama Kawali terabadikan dalam dua buah prasasti batu peninggalan PRABU RAJA WASTU yang tersimpan di "ASTANA GEDE" Kawali. Dalam prasasti itu ditegaskan "mangadeg di kuta Kawali" (bertahta di kota Kawali) dan keratonnya disebut SURAWISESA yang dijelaskan sebagai "Dalem sipawindu hurip" (keraton yang memberikan ketenangan hidup).

Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana (1340 – 1357). Gugur di Bubat, Majapahit pada tahun 1357.

MANGKUBUMI SURADIPATI atau PRABU BUNISORA, adik Prabu Lingga Buana. Ada yang menyebut PRABU KUDA LALEAN. Dalam BABAD PANJALU disebut PRABU BOROSNGORA. Selain itu ia pun dijuluki BATARA GURU di Jampang karena ia menjadi pertapa dan resi yang ulung).

Prabu Raja Wastu atau Niskala Wastu Kancana(1371-1475). Beliau adalah anak Prabu Lingga Buana, dinobatkan menjadi raja pada tahun 1371 pada usia 23 tahun. Permaisurinya yang pertama adalah LARA SARKATI puteri Lampung. Dari perkawinan ini lahir SANG HALIWUNGAN (setelah dinobatkan menjadi Raja Sunda bergelar PRABU SUSUKTUNGGAL). Permaisuri yang kedua adalah MAYANGSARI puteri sulung Bunisora atau Mangkubumi Suradipati. Dari perkawinan ini lahir NINGRAT KANCANA (setelah menjadi penguasa Galuh bergelar PRABU DEWA NISKALA). Setelah Wastu Kancana wafat tahun 1475, kerajaan dipecah dua diantara Susuktunggal dan Dewa Niskala dalam kedudukan sederajat. Politik kesatuan wilayah telah membuat jalinan perkawinan antar cucu Wastu Kencana. JAYADEWATA, putera Dewa Niskala mula-mula memperistri AMBETKASIH (puteri KI GEDENG SINDANGKASIH). Kemudian memperistri SUBANGLARANG (puteri KI GEDENG TAPA yang menjadi Raja Singapura). Subanglarang ini keluaran pesantren Pondok QURO di PURA, Karawang. Ia seorang wanita muslim murid SYEKH HASANUDIN yang menganut MAHZAB HANAFI. Pesantren Qura di Karawang didirikan tahun 1416 dalam masa pemerintahan Wastu Kancana. Subanglarang belajar di situ selama 2 tahun. Ia adalah nenek SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH. Kemudian memperistri KENTRING MANIK MAYANG SUNDA puteri Prabu Susuktunggal. Jadilah antara Raja Sunda dan Raja Raja Galuh yang seayah ini menjadi besan. Di tahun 1482, Prabu Dewa Niskala menyerahkan Tahta Kerajaan Galuh kepada puteranya Jayadewata. Demikian pula dengan Prabu Susuktungal yang menyerahkan Tahta Kerajaan Sunda kepada menantunya ini (Jayadewata). Dengan peristiwa yang terjadi tahun 1482 itu, kerajaan warisan Wastu Kencana berada kembali dalam satu tangan.

JAYADEWATA memutuskan untuk berkedudukan di Pakuan sebagai "Susuhunan" karena ia telah lama tinggal di sini menjalankan pemerintahan sehari-hari mewakili mertuanya. Sekali lagi Pakuan menjadi pusat pemerintahan. Jaman Pajajaran diawali oleh pemerintahan Ratu Jayadewata yang bergelar Sri Baduga Maharaja yang memerintah selama 39 tahun (1482 - 1521). Pada masa inilah Pakuan mencapai puncak perkembangannya.

Raja-Raja Sunda yang menjadi Raja di Mataram dan Majapahit
Jadi ada dua penerus sah dari tahta KERAJAAN SUNDA yang menjadi raja besar di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur.

Sanjaya / Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama, raja ke 2 Kerajaan Sunda (723 – 732M), menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 - 760M). Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya.
Raden Wijaya, penerus sah Kerajaan Sunda ke – 27, yang lahir di Pakuan, menjadi Raja Majapahit pertama (1293 – 1309 M).

Pajajaran

Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482 – 1521)

Surawisesa (1521 – 1535)

Ratu Dewata (1535 – 1543)

Ratu Sakti (1543 – 1551)

Raga Mulya (1567 – 1579)
Berakhirnya jaman Pajajaran (1482 - 1579), ditandai dengan diboyongnya PALANGKA SRIMAN SRIWACANA (Tempat duduk tempat penobatan tahta) dari Pakuan ke Surasowan di Banten oleh pasukan Maulana Yusuf. Batu berukuran 200 x 160 x 20 cm itu terpaksa di boyong ke Banten karena tradisi politik waktu itu "mengharuskan" demikian.

Pertama, dengan dirampasnya Palangka tersebut, di Pakuan tidak mungkin lagi dinobatkan raja baru.

Kedua, dengan memiliki Palangka itu, Maulana Yusuf merupakan penerus kekuasaan Pajajaran yang "sah" karena buyut perempuannya adalah puteri Sri Baduga Maharaja.

Palangka Sriman Sriwacana sendiri saat ini bisa ditemukan di depan bekas Keraton Surasowan di Banten. Karena mengkilap, orang Banten menyebutnya WATU GIGILANG. Kata Gigilang berarti mengkilap atau berseri, sama artinya dengan kata Sriman.

Woww...this is really astounding, Majapahitans!But of course, it would really help if there was a candi or prasasti that could verify this chronice, rather than mere story:(

I feel bad that the sundanesse could't feel the same way the javanesse feel when they see borobudur or prmbanan or ratu boko etc...
tangawizi
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 9 2006, 04:41 PM) [snapback]2466362[/snapback]


The Pasunda Bubat is nothing to do with racial tribal purity.
It also nothing like tribal war.

You must understand that in 14th century AD, the island of Java has developed complex and advanced society, perfectly describe as a kingdom (even empire) rather than merely tribe.

This bloodshed is more likely caused by Political Conflict, and "The Dignity" of a Kingdom.

At first both parties (Majapahit and Sunda) are willing to ties closer alliance signed with royal marriage .....(cut)

In this case the Princess is somehow "serve" as "the symbol of the Kingdom", or as "The Royal Prize".
But with her famed Beauty, what a prize it was.... love2.gif
Beautiful and noble women are often suffer bacause their beauty and their blood.... bawling.gif


Well, I guess I was trying to say that in ancient wars, there is always a story about a princess or queen who refused to succumb to the seduction of rival king and kills herself in order to keep the lineage of her family or people pure... Its like a very important thing to the men that the noble woman is not defiled, better dead than breeding a new line of offsprings for the rival kingdom. Also, kingdom alliances were always sealed with a royal marriage whereby the princess begats offsprings that share the blood of the rival rulers. Women, however beautiful and noble, were commodities in the times of peace building and war. Nowadays, such a role for women is no longer significant. The international entities have replaced the structure for negotiating peace agreements. Where are we gonna make our beautiful myths for future generations? icon_redface.gif

Anyways, your history thread has caused me to re-read VS Naipaul's books on his travels thru Indonesia in 1979. He mentioned that Islam when it first arrived through India to Indonesia was indeed Sufist philosophy as it adapted very well to the mysterious Hindu-Buddhist animist traditions found in the lands. I quote a few passages from his book 'Among the Believers' Indonesia, chapter 3. It may come as a stinging read to some, but I would like to hear from someone like you who although is a Muslim, is yet far removed from the new Islamicization purification drive, and instead is possessed of your Javanese civilization completely...

"In Java, in the Hindu-Buddhist days, a pesantren was a monastery, supported by the community in return for theh spiritual guuidance and the spiritual protection it provided. It was easy for the Sufi Muslims, when the philosophical systems of the old civilization cracked, to take over such places; and it was easy for such places to continue to be counselling centers for village people. It was open to a man to go at any time to the leader or kiyai of a pesantren and ask for persona ladvice or religious instruction. It was not necessary to be enrolled in any formal course; in this way pesantren instruction could be said to be 'unstructured'.

In the Dutch time, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the villages began to chane. Some people became rich, and they wanted to educate their children. It was these people, the newly well-to-do of the villages, who began to turn the pesantren from sufi centers into schools for children. And Islam itself was changing in Java. The sufi side, the mystical side that was closer to the older religions, was becoming less important. The opening of the Suez Canal and the coming of the steamship made Java - until then at the eastern limit of Islam - less remote. In the days of sail it took months to get to Mecca; now the journey could be done in three to four weeks. More people went to Mecca. More people became acquainted with the purer faith: the Prophet, the messener of God, and his strict injunctions.

In the last decade of the nineteeth century the pesantrens began to be turned into schools. The Jombang pesantren school which we had visited, had been established in 1896. But they remained religious places. They remained places where the villagers supported and to which they could go for advice. Every thirty-five days the leaders of the pesantrens in an area met to discuss whatever issues had arisen..... [cut]. Why did the leaders meet every thirty five days? That was a relic of Hindu-Buddhist times. The week then had five days, and the leaders of the monasteries met every seven weeks.

[cut]

Here and there in the yard, in the very dim light, boys were pretending to study. It was pretense because the light was so dim. The boys were looking : a book on islamic law, an Arabic Grammar, the Story of Islam, How to Pray. The last book had eight stage-by-stage drawings of the postures of Islamic prayer; and it perhaps wasn't really necessary. since the boys prayed five times a day. It was late in the evening; and the pesantren day began early.

The sufi center turned school: the discipline of the monks and dervishes applied to the young: it wasn't traditional, and it wasn't education. It was a breaking away from the Indonesian past; it was Islamization; it was stupefaction, greater than any that could have come with a western style curriculum. And yet it was attractive to the people concerned because, twisted up with it, was the old monkish celebration of the idea of poverty: an idea which, applied to a schhool in Java in 1979, came out as little more than the poor teaching the poor to be poor."



what do you think of his observations of the pesantrens in 1979? did you study in one? thanks Maja!! biggrin.gif
Majapahitans
QUOTE(GluTTony @ Nov 9 2006, 11:45 AM) [snapback]2466711[/snapback]

Thanks for the pics and thread Majapahitan! I actually feel like I'm in the Majapahit era by looking at these pics biggrin.gif even fantisizing the princess bathing biggrin.gif

just wanna ask, how did the sundanese get their looks different from Javanese as you described,icon_smile.gif is it from offspring or because of somthing else?
Tata(Tommy's Ex wife) is Sundanese right?Great Example of how sundanese look like biggthumpup.gif

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Tata is not Sundanese..... embarassedlaugh.gif She's Javanese Ningrat (noble)

Perempuan itu terlahir dengan nama Raden Ayu Ardhia Pramesti Regita Cahyani. Tata, demikian panggilan akrabnya, lahir di Jakarta 2 April 1975. Ia adalah putri pertama dari tiga putri RM Bambang Soetjahjo Adji Soerjosoebandoro.

Sejak usia lima tahun ia mengikuti ayahnya yang bekerja di kantor agen PT Adhika Admiral Line di Singapura. Setelah tamat sekolah menengah, ia melanjutkan studinya di University of New South Wales, Australia, di bidang pertamanan (landscaping).

Pada tahun 1996, Tata ke Jakarta dalam rangka tugas studinya tersebut. Di sinilah ia kecantol Tommy. Saat itu, keluarga Bambang Soetjahjo berziarah ke makam Ny Tien Soeharto di Giribangun, Surakarta. Kebetulan saat itu Tommy juga berziarah, dan bertemulah sejoli ini. Tommy pun jatuh cinta pada pandangan pertama.

RAy Hilmiyah Dharmawan, kerabat Istana Mangkunegaran yang terhitung masih ’bude’ Tata, menuturkan bahwa apa yang terjadi serba kebetulan. "Sebenarnya semua serbakebetulan. Kebetulan mereka bertemu dan kebetulan mereka masih kerabat," katanya.

Kompas Cybermedia


Wanna see typical Sundanese beauty..... love2.gif

I can say Desy Ratnassri has that typical aura of Sundanese beauty.....

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And Rossa is the daughter of Sunda noble family from Sumedang...
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Don't forget the late artist (singer) Nike Ardilla has that typical Sunda beauty too.
She also came from noble Sundanese family too, maybe we can trace their family tree to Pajajaran era.... biggrin.gif

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Majapahitans
QUOTE(tangawizi @ Nov 11 2006, 02:07 AM) [snapback]2471922[/snapback]



"In Java, in the Hindu-Buddhist days, a pesantren was a monastery, supported by the community in return for theh spiritual guuidance and the spiritual protection it provided. It was easy for the Sufi Muslims, when the philosophical systems of the old civilization cracked, to take over such places; and it was easy for such places to continue to be counselling centers for village people. It was open to a man to go at any time to the leader or kiyai of a pesantren and ask for persona ladvice or religious instruction. It was not necessary to be enrolled in any formal course; in this way pesantren instruction could be said to be 'unstructured'.

In the Dutch time, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the villages began to chane. Some people became rich, and they wanted to educate their children. It was these people, the newly well-to-do of the villages, who began to turn the pesantren from sufi centers into schools for children. And Islam itself was changing in Java. The sufi side, the mystical side that was closer to the older religions, was becoming less important. The opening of the Suez Canal and the coming of the steamship made Java - until then at the eastern limit of Islam - less remote. In the days of sail it took months to get to Mecca; now the journey could be done in three to four weeks. More people went to Mecca. More people became acquainted with the purer faith: the Prophet, the messener of God, and his strict injunctions.

In the last decade of the nineteeth century the pesantrens began to be turned into schools. The Jombang pesantren school which we had visited, had been established in 1896. But they remained religious places. They remained places where the villagers supported and to which they could go for advice. Every thirty-five days the leaders of the pesantrens in an area met to discuss whatever issues had arisen..... [cut]. Why did the leaders meet every thirty five days? That was a relic of Hindu-Buddhist times. The week then had five days, and the leaders of the monasteries met every seven weeks.

[cut]

Here and there in the yard, in the very dim light, boys were pretending to study. It was pretense because the light was so dim. The boys were looking : a book on islamic law, an Arabic Grammar, the Story of Islam, How to Pray. The last book had eight stage-by-stage drawings of the postures of Islamic prayer; and it perhaps wasn't really necessary. since the boys prayed five times a day. It was late in the evening; and the pesantren day began early.

The sufi center turned school: the discipline of the monks and dervishes applied to the young: it wasn't traditional, and it wasn't education. It was a breaking away from the Indonesian past; it was Islamization; it was stupefaction, greater than any that could have come with a western style curriculum. And yet it was attractive to the people concerned because, twisted up with it, was the old monkish celebration of the idea of poverty: an idea which, applied to a schhool in Java in 1979, came out as little more than the poor teaching the poor to be poor."



what do you think of his observations of the pesantrens in 1979? did you study in one? thanks Maja!! biggrin.gif


Interesting observation on pesantren.... icon_smile.gif
Thanks Tanga for your contribution..... biggthumpup.gif

I never study at pesantren.

I study Islam at formal Indonesian national school, also I happen to joined Remaja Mesjid (Mosque Youth) in my school for some times.
Then I was shocked, the fellow muslim youth is practicing a "harsh" interpretation of Islam. eek.gif They bound for idealism to practice "pure" Islam like the days of prophet. To some degre very similar to Taliban Afghan interpretation of strict Islam.
Theyre like the seed taken from their soil, alien in their culture and land, even their fathers.

They also took more "agressive" approach, full of suspicion and even promoting hatred towards non-muslims.... especially christian and jew. Waging this "hate" campaign is way too much for my peace loving soul. icon_sad.gif

So in my dissapointment of "ugly" side some of my fellow muslim have shown, in my soul searching, I find consolation in peaceful nature of Islam. The far kinder interpretation of Islam is can be find in sufism, Islamic mysticism. The very first Islam that came to Indonesia, that well adapted with our Hindu-Buddhist heritage.
The inclusive and peaceful Islam. With emphasize on the Loving nature of God, Ar-Rahmaan, Ar-Rahiim.
How our soul is longing to be together with our ultimate love.... God....
TonyL
Intersting documents ( Nusantara pustaka etc) . Good to check on authenicity but intersting anyway

Its a great thread here but suggesting (without good basis ) that Majapahit could not even catch a place on its own island aint good for its image as empire builder! Does not make the claimed xtent of controlling Archipealago and peninsula very credible. embarassedlaugh.gif

cool30.gif No offense but claims that Sunda region/polity cannot be conquered by Majapahit' are hard to believe for objective readers. Especially if there was no victory on a majapahit invasion or something.

I gotta check things but as far as i can see now there is no historic indication that Sundaregion in west of Java was strong enough to resist Majapahit between 1300-1400. In fact even in the standard international records of 1200 AD it does not appear as independent polity enough to have important diplomatic relations. Its listed as tributary of Srivijaya. Now... Srivijaya is defeated but Sunda would be too strong?

QUOTE
Why Majapahit successfully conquer rest of Nusantara but can not conquer Sunda in military way...?
Although they're share same island.
Simple..., because....:
TonyL
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Candi Kidal . Build in 1200's just before Majapahit but still associated with it.

Dont forget to tip biggrin.gif
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Doorman Singosari
Bhaskara
Agreed, TonyL. I have a deep feeling for Sundanesse as I live in Bandung, but it's hard to believe that the Sundanesse Kingdom was THAT strong to resist such power. Sundanesse IS different from the Javanesse, but they have strong influences from the Javanesse in their culture, prove that Javanesse were able to penetrate into the Sundanesse way of life.
Majapahitans
Majapahit together with Srivijaya often regarded as thallasocracy, the empire they reign the sea and trade routes. Yes they conquered importants ports of certain kingdom, but often their direct control don't reach inland.
Because they control trade routes of the archipelago, that's means they do control the archipelago, cause inland region that are not conquered directly will be kinda isolated, by Majapahit will or by their own will (isolated themself like Badui people does).

Weather did Majapahit ever attack Sunda is quite disputable since there's no official records of Majapahit raid on Sunda land. But according some source (you must understand, Sundanese tends to document historical event in "pantun" tales rather than written record on lontar or stone inscriptions) there's twice Majapahit try to attack Sunda, but the invasion successfully repelled.

Gajah Mada did mention Sunda in his Palapa oath as territory he desired to conquer, but I think Sunda is never successfully conquered in "fair" military way. But the symbolic way by the entrapment of Sunda King in Bubat. The name Sunda didn't appear in Negarakertagama, but why the name Bali is appear although is far closer to East Java than Sunda. Traveling by land Majapahit-Sunda although on the same island doesn't means the more convenient way to travel, since at that time there's no real good road connecting east to west Java, the convenient way to travel is by sea, like Princess Pitaloka did when she came to Majapahit.

Yes for some decades West Java is under th influence of Srivijaya, (it also documented in tales about foreign "orang sebrang" invasion and building their kingdom, Kuntala in Tatar Sunda. Even the name Kuntala is used in popular Saur Sepuh story as enemy of Sunda).
But during Gajah Mada time, Sunda is already an independent country. A rich agricultural-based deep inland country sandwiched between mighty Malayu-Srivijaya and Singhasari (later, Majapahit).

Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara is indeed a controversial book. Cause it suggest that there's blood connection between royal house of Sunda-Galuh with Royal house of Singhasari-Majapahit. Suggesting Raden Wijaya is known as half Sunda.

Acording to This book that Rakeyan Jayadharma, crown Prince of Sunda, wed Dyah Lembu Tal (Dyah Singhamurti) of Singhasari, thus has Sangrama Wijaya (Raden Wijaya) was born in Pakuan as their son. He inherit both Sunda line and Singhasari line, but then Jayadharma die young, Princess of Singhasari insist to return to Singhasari with her son (probably there's an succession intrique in Sunda court, and Dyah Lembu Tal fear of her son safety).
Then Wijaya return to Singhasari and serve under his father in law, Kertanegara of Singhasari. Later become the first king of Majapahit. Raden Wijaya is quite rightful heir as Sunda's 27th king. But instead he become a first ruler of Majapahit, become the grandparent of Hayam Wuruk. In Sundanese tales, Raden Wijaya is identified as Jaka Susuruh in Ciung Wanara's tale.

This book is discovered in Cirebon, indeed an ancient lontar book. This discovery had make Indonesian historians split into two factions, Soekmono called it pure rubbish, while Ayat Rohaedi approove the authenticity. Guess for the sake of his "Javaness" Soekmono couldn't bear the idea that Javanese Majapahit royal lineage are somehow had Sunda origin in them. embarassedlaugh.gif But Ayat Rohaedi approove it cause the book can explain the reason of certain event.

1. Why there's no historical record of Majapahit "direct" invasion on Sunda.....
Because there's marital alliance between two kingdoms, these two kingdom ancestor (Singhasari at that time and kingdom of Sunda) are forming alliance to face Malayu power. Since their first king (Raden Wijaya) is also Sunda's crown Prince, there's "reluctancy" to attack Sunda, since they're relatives.

2. Why Majapahit royal family (on Hayam Wuruk behalf) choose Princess Dyah Pitaloka Chitra Rashmi of Sunda to be his wife/queen. Despite the "romanticized" tales of how the Painting of Princess has capture the heart of emperor biggrin.gif , probably the real things happen is, indeed it was an "arranged married" to tied again long lost relatives of royal houses.
Also probably to "claim" Majapahit emperor rights on Sunda's throne.
tangawizi
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 11 2006, 02:02 PM) [snapback]2472363[/snapback]

Interesting observation on pesantren.... icon_smile.gif
Thanks Tanga for your contribution..... biggthumpup.gif

I never study at pesantren.

I study Islam at formal Indonesian national school, also I happen to joined Remaja Mesjid (Mosque Youth) in my school for some times.
Then I was shocked, the fellow muslim youth is practicing a "harsh" interpretation of Islam. eek.gif They bound for idealism to practice "pure" Islam like the days of prophet. To some degre very similar to Taliban Afghan interpretation of strict Islam.
Theyre like the seed taken from their soil, alien in their culture and land, even their fathers.


They also took more "agressive" approach, full of suspicion and even promoting hatred towards non-muslims.... especially christian and jew. Waging this "hate" campaign is way too much for my peace loving soul. icon_sad.gif

So in my dissapointment of "ugly" side some of my fellow muslim have shown, in my soul searching, I find consolation in peaceful nature of Islam. The far kinder interpretation of Islam is can be find in sufism, Islamic mysticism. The very first Islam that came to Indonesia, that well adapted with our Hindu-Buddhist heritage.
The inclusive and peaceful Islam. With emphasize on the Loving nature of God, Ar-Ramaan, Ar-Rahiim.
How our soul is longing to be together with our ultimate love.... God....


I think that was a poetic way to look at the problem of hard-line islamicization in our lands, I tend to call it an arabization process, because the adherents tend to give up their traditional names and adopt Arabic names, attire and speech patterns. I am very worried about this trend because it is not exactly a good sign of things to come in our multicultural societies in Asia.

Although VS Naipaul wrote the book in the 1979, he subsequently revisited the four converted lands (Iran, Pakistan, Malaysia and Indonesia) in 1995, lands where descendants of Muslim converts live at odds with indigenous traditions, and where dreams of Islamic purity clash with economic and political realities. Although some critics have attacked Naipaul's observations as somewhat coming from a Hindu supremacist (he is Indian born and raised in Trinidad but is actually probably more English than the English), I think the reality is Naipaul has made such as incisive observation and brilliant cultural analysis on our lands, that it really hurts to hear the truth of his observations.

Although wahabbism is funded by rich arab sheikhs in Saudi Arabia, the brand of islam they are exporting is fundamental Islam, which has been described incisively as the poor teaching the poor how to be poor.

The aim of such teaching is to ensure the perpetual powers of the mullahs and ultimately, the sheikhs in Saudi Arabia.

A far cry from the divine and beauty of islamic sufi philosophy.
malaccan
Really enjoyed reading the entries here. Ancient southeast Asian history is the best. biggthumpup.gif

Majapahitans
QUOTE(malaccan @ Nov 14 2006, 08:11 AM) [snapback]2481311[/snapback]

Really enjoyed reading the entries here. Ancient southeast Asian history is the best. biggthumpup.gif



Glad you like it malaccan...... icon_wink.gif
Has you check the Majapahit Map..... some parts of Malaysia is mentioned in there maan.... beerchug.gif
malaccan
QUOTE(Majapahitans @ Nov 15 2006, 04:31 PM) [snapback]2484591[/snapback]

Glad you like it malaccan...... icon_wink.gif
Has you check the Majapahit Map..... some parts of Malaysia is mentioned in there maan.... beerchug.gif
I have my man beerchug.gif I didn't realise that Majapahit's influence went that far north into the peninsula. Certainly towards the founding of Malacca, the more dominant force was Ayutthaya (oh dear, can't help but think Siri.. you know the the storm that's brewing over in Thai chat?).

What I love is the ever changing spheres of influence of that time, I get intoxicated just thinking of all the powers that had risen and fallen in our archipelago. And how it all inter-relates with one another by way of friendship, rivalry, trade, war, intermarriage etc.

Majapahitans, how influential was Srivijaya on Majapahit? I know that Srivijaya had ties to Java by way of the Sailendras, and this had been supported by the findings of stone inscriptions in Kalasan and Ligor (Nakhon Sri Thammarat). Were there any aspects of Srivijayan court/society that got incorporated into that of Majapahit?

Part of my ancestry is Minang, and I like reading about how Adityavarman rebelled for a short while againts Majapahit. His early political and military career could only have been nurtured if not protected by Rajapatni Gayatri, to whom Dara Jingga (Adityavarman's forebearer) was close to.
TonyL
@ Maja Maybe we both emphasize on two different statements.

The statement that Sunda was not militiry conqured is different from " Sunda could nt be conquered ". I might agree with the first statement but the second one seems problematic. cool30.gif I concentrate on the second statement since i think Majapahit had no equal in Nusantara when it was at its peak.

QUOTE
The name Sunda didn't appear in Negarakertagama, but why the name Bali is appear although is far closer to East Java than Sunda.
Prapanca mentioned several times that whole of Java was under control ( I.3 etc ) and Sunda on west java might have been included . The fact that he uses Java as geographical name is clearly attested by the fact that he later mentions that Madura used to be connected physically to Java before it was separated by the sea. ( XV.2)

I dont think its illogical that Sunda aint in that 'list '. It seems to talk about territories outside Java . That is why " nus(h)a pranusha" (outer/other islands/regions ) is used in the text ( XIII.1 ) . We also see that actually none of the places on Java is mentioned in that list , not even Kadiri, the old rival. If the poet wanted to name places on Java island itself , why did nt he mentioned any one? Bali is offcourse named because although closer to east Java it was still outside Java.

QUOTE
Weather did Majapahit ever attack Sunda is quite disputable since there's no official records of Majapahit raid on Sunda land. But according some source (you must understand, Sundanese tends to document historical event in "pantun" tales rather than written record on lontar or stone inscriptions) there's twice Majapahit try to attack Sunda, but the invasion successfully repelled.

Yes, no reported invasions but it seems too optimistic(or pessimistic?) to interpretate this as if Sunda was too strong for Majapahit. Seems more likely it was not needed and that Majapahit hegemony was not rejected.

Majapahit sended large scale militairy expeditions to much further away regions when needed, for example Sumatra's ancient Srivijaya –Malayu. For political reasons and to protect commercial interests of course. These battles and victories are even mentioned in foreign records . So.... Majapahit s great militairy power is clearly attested. whip.gif

Now... it seems there are'nt non-sundanese records indicating that Sunda was strong enough to resist majapahit. In fact many non javanese records dont leave any doubt about Majapahits power :

QUOTE
The Majapahit emperor was famous for his love of justice. The empire grew prosperous....There was a ceaseless coming and going of peoples from the territories overseas that had submitted, to say nothing of the places inside Java itself. Of the districts on the coast , from the west came the whole of the west , from the east comes the whole of the east. From places inland right down to the shores of the southern ocean the people all came for an audience with the Emperor, bringing tribute and offerings. The land of Majapahit...

Hikayat Raja2 Pasai


Does not sound there was an exception on Java icon_confused.gif

Majapahit control might be more confined to the coast , while its possible that the inland centre in Sunda was left alone. Sunda surely must have degree of independence , because this was the policy for most regions outside central and east Java. Even in the case of vassalship, the local rulers kept ruling their one people as long as they formed no political or commercial threat and paid taxes to the overlord.

Few words on below mentioned obstacles for invasion/conquest :
QUOTE
Why Majapahit successfully conquer rest of Nusantara but can not conquer Sunda in military way...?
lthough they're share same island.
Simple..., because....:
Next to Javanese, Sundanese has large population....
Sunda-Galuh is kingdom based on agriculture... so they estimated to have large population and able to support large army.
If you see ethnicity census in Indonesia, Sundanese is the second largest ethnic group after Javanese.

Sunda Galuh able to held large amount of manpower, and maintain large army.
Unlike Srivijaya that has their capital near large river, thus make it prone to Majapahit naval invasion, Sunda capital lies deep inland. Majapahit soldier will suffer guerillas warfare, also attack from army hidden in jungle, and large amount of them too.


Is 40 miles from the coast really that much for soldiers who live in tropical regions themselve? Cham and Khmer marched wheelchair.gif hundreds of miles inland, over mountains and through jungles to slice each others throats. whip.gif Besides , Pajajaran was defeated by others later and king Geusan Ulun also submitted to sultan Agung, right? So..centres in the Parahyangan could be conquered by powers less strong than Majapahit.
TonyL
QUOTE
Majapahitans :
This book is discovered in Cirebon, indeed an ancient lontar book. This discovery had make Indonesian historians split into two factions, Soekmono called it pure rubbish, while Ayat Rohaedi approove the authenticity. Guess for the sake of his "Javaness" Soekmono couldn't bear the idea that Javanese Majapahit royal lineage are somehow had Sunda origin in them. But Ayat Rohaedi approove it cause the book can explain the reason of certain event.


Interesting . Thnx for extra info on the document. biggthumpup.gif

Maybe some Sunda blood was there too. Intermarriage between courts was normal so why not? But you know sometimes additional elements are turned into claiming too much.

Hi to Malaccan too ! Where people speak of Srivijaya , he will enter icon_wink.gif
Betong
Hi there......
What languange of people of Saleindra speak, also Majapahit, also Srivijaya... Love to know that....
malaccan
QUOTE(TonyL @ Nov 15 2006, 09:23 PM) [snapback]2485145[/snapback]

Interesting . Thnx for extra info on the document. biggthumpup.gif

Maybe some Sunda blood was there too. Intermarriage between courts was normal so why not? But you know sometimes additional elements are turned into claiming too much.

Hi to Malaccan too ! Where people speak of Srivijaya , he will enter icon_wink.gif


Hi Tony! You should start another history topic... Maja has done one for Majapahit, I've done one for Srivijaya, you should do one too icon_smile.gif

One example I know of the many intermarriage between the various dynasties was that of Airlangga and Dharmaprasadottungadevi in 1030AD. The marriage was celebrated in the famous Javanese poem Arjunavivaha. She was a close relative of the Srivijayan king Sangramavijaya Yottungavarman, and had taken refuge in East Java after her father was taken prisoner by Chola. Airlangga constructed a Buddhist monastery named Srivijayasrama in 1035. It seemed that Airlangga loved her so much that he was so affected by her death in 1042AD that he renounced the throne and decided to become a monk, according to the Negarakertagama.

QUOTE(Betong @ Nov 16 2006, 05:02 AM) [snapback]2486346[/snapback]

Hi there......
What languange of people of Saleindra speak, also Majapahit, also Srivijaya... Love to know that....


Majapahit used old Javanese, Srivijaya used old Malay. Here's a Srivijayan text from the Kota Kapur stone inscription dated from 686AD which describes the start of a military incursion into Java. It's attributed to the Srivijayan king Jayanasa.

"...cakaravarsatita 608 din pratipada cuklapasya vulan vaicakha. Talkalana yan mamman sumpah ini. Nipahat di velana yan cala sri viyaja kalivat manapik yan bhumi java tidak bhakti ka sri vijaya..."

Some words just jump out at you, don't they. The translation is as follows:

"In the year Shaka 608 (=686AD), the first day of the first fifteenth of the month of Vaisakha, such is the date at which this curse is carved. At this date, the army of Srivijaya leaves for war against the country of Java which doesn't recognise Srivijaya."

It gained a foothold over some parts of Java for a few centuries then it got kicked out. whip.gif
tangawizi
QUOTE(Betong @ Nov 16 2006, 08:02 AM) [snapback]2486346[/snapback]

Hi there......
What languange of people of Saleindra speak, also Majapahit, also Srivijaya... Love to know that....


Ahhhhhh....Betong my superman! Finally, a spark in you! icon_wink.gif
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