QUOTE (Suzuka00 @ May 27 2009, 08:20 AM)
Saludung is on borneo...
Selurong that sounds like Saludung was established by borneans before that there was no Selurong it was also because of the goodwill of the king of luzon,luzon is also identified with selurung much like philippines is identified with manila..
Saludong was implied by a caucasian historian as off the bay of Borneo. And it is incorrect.
Selurung or Saludong is what the Ancient Indonesians as well as the ancient Bruneians called the Lusung Kingdom.
Sultan of Brunei, Nakhoda Ragam aka Raja Baguinda of Mindanao aka Raja Humabon of the Bisayan islands and accdg to some was one and the same with Sultan Parameswara of the Malacca Sultanate(but i'm inclined to believe Parameswara was a forebear of Ragam), invaded Selurung or Lusung Kingdom and defeated its ruler Datu Gambang and married the latter's daughter a Dayang of the Kingdom of Sapa or Savaka. This King claimed he was an emperor from Malacca to Luzon and he was very proud Vijayan or Bisaya(he wore a bisayan chawat) with Chinese blood(he wore imperial Chinese clothes) and Arab blood(claimed he was descended to the Mohammed the prophet and to Iskander or Alexander the Great).
His descendants resulting from the intermarriage with the Kingdom of Sapa nobilities include the nobilities of Ternate and Moluccan islands(Spice Islands) via Gatpandan and nobilities of Lusung Kingdom with Tondo as its capital and with Lakandula as its ruler and Manila Sultanate under Raja Sulayman as well as the nobilities of the Sulu Sultanate.
QUOTE (Majapahitans @ Jun 8 2009, 10:43 AM)
This book caught my attention. This is interesting...., I tought Malaysian never (want to) acknowledge that they were once belongs under Majapahit domination. Probably because they tought it was a "Javacentric" empire....
I remember a debate with Malaysian member in Wikipedia insisted to remove Majapahit from Malaysian history timeline, but Malaysian didn't seems to upset about the fact that they were once belongs to "Malay" Srivijayan empire.
They wouldn't be uspet that they did belong to the Srivijayan empire or better yet to this Shilifoshi or Sanfotsi or Zabag or Javaka or Savaka(Sanskrit word for people of the Sabang or Sapa(estuary) thallosocracy.
Judging from the grandeur of that Maritime network of independent states all under allegiance to a Maharaja.http://asiapacificuniverse.com/pkm/presterjohn.htm
Indian empires of the 12th century
Was there any historical empire of the 12th century that indeed extended over the Three Indias?
There was one maritime empire that could possibly fit if one only sees the dominion extending to parts of the Three Indias. It was known in Chinese texts as Sanfotsi and among the Muslims as Zabag.
Sanfotsi/Zabag could fit the bill if one accepts the historical texts at their word, which not all modern scholars are willing to do.
Chinese geographical texts like the Chu-fan-chi (1225) of Chau Ju-Kua mention that Sanfotsi ruled over numerous kingdoms within insular and mainland Southeast Asia. They further extend the rule of this kingdom to Si-lan or Ceylon.
The Muslim geography of al-Masudi confirms this latter claim when it states that Zabag, widely considered the equivalent of the Chinese Sanfotsi, ruled over Sirandib, the Arabic name for Ceylon.
Furthermore, the geography of Ma Tuan-lin (circa 1200) states that Chou-lien, was a vassal of Sanfotsi, verifying the same claim in the Sung-shih (960 - 1279). Chou-lien was the Chinese name for the Chola empire of India3. Again, the Chinese claim is verified by Arab geographers who state that Kalikut was among the dependencies of Zabag.
The Chola emperor Rajendrachola claimed to have made some conquests himself in the East Indies. However, his statements have no support from independent sources, i.e., Chinese, Muslim or other historians. Even Rajendrachola's son only claimed one of these victories -- that of Kadaram, possibly the state of Kataha in Malaysia.
The Chinese and Muslim accounts gain support from substantial evidence of royal influence from insular Southeast Asia in India at this time. Pali texts from 13th century Ceylon mention "Savaka" princes on the island.
As mentioned earlier, Sanfotsi/Zabag was known by the Indians as Suvarnadvipa:
"the eastern islands in this ocean (Sea of Champa), which are nearer to China than India, are the islands of Zabaj, called by the Hindus, Suvarnadvipa, i.e. the gold islands... because you obtain much gold as deposit if you wash only a little of the earth of that country."
(Al-Biruni, 1030 AD)
The monarchs of Suvarnadvipa were very active among the Cholas. In 1005, a Suvarnadvipa king built a Buddhist vihara in the Chola state, which the Chola king granted revenues4. In 1014-1015, gifts were sent for a Hindu temple5, and again in 1018-10196. In the 1080s, the king of Suvarnadvipa built the foundation for a Buddhist temple in South India7.
If we accept the historical claims of the Chinese and Muslim texts, then two of the three Indias would be covered so far. Or at least we can say that Sanfotsi/Zabag extended over significant parts of these two Indias. But what about the third India in East Africa?
We know that at an earlier period, Austronesian seafarers from insular Southeast Asia settled on the island of Madagascar forming the Malagasy-speaking population of the island. However, not many people are aware of the fact that during the medieval period, both regions maintained substanial contact with each other.
The Book of the Wonders of India, written by a Muslim author mentions in 945 an expeditionary raid off the East African coast by a fleet of 1000 ships from the East Indies. Centuries later in 1154, the Arab geographer Idrisi wrote in Kitab Rujjar that "the people of the isles of Zabag come to the land of Zanj on small and large ships...for they understand one another's languages." He also states: "The residents of Zabag go to the land of Sofala (near Beira, Mozambique) and export the iron from there supplying it to all the lands of India. No iron is comparable to theirs in quality and sharpness."
Idrisi, whose patron was Roger II of Sicily, also states about trade expeditions to Zanj: "The people of Komr (Khmer) and the merchants of the land of the Mihraj (ruler of Zabag) come among them (the Zanj) and are well received and trade with them."
Tanzanian traditions suggest that there was a settlement around Pemba and Zanzibar of a people they called the Debuli from �Diba� and Jawa8. They were supposed to be responsible for planting the coconut palms and mangoes along the Tanzanian coast. As we will examine in the section on the spice routes the relationship between the Tanzanian coast and the East Indies may extend back into deep antiquity. There are different theories as to where Diba and Jawa refer, but one possibility is that Diba is a form of Dabag, thought to be a Nestorian corruption of Zabag. Jawa can refer to any number of East Indian locations such as Java, Sabah, Davao, Toubok, etc. The Debuli were said to be a seafaring people whose ships had sails of coconut palm fiber.
That the kingdom of Sanfotsi/Zabag extended over a vast region that might be said to span the "Three Indias" we have this quote from Mas'udi:
"In the sea of Champa (eastern South China Sea) is the empire of Maharaja, the king of the islands, who rules over an empire without limit and has innumerable troops. Even the most rapid vessels could not complete in two years a tour round the isles which are under his possesssion. The territories of this king produce all sorts of spices and aromatics, and no other sovereign of the world gets as much wealth from the soil."
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